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Early Detection of Degenerative Diseases

Early Detection of Osteoarthritis (1986)

James Alexander, MD - MS Thesis

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a non-invasive, pre-clinical marker of osteoarthritis using miniature accelerometers in groups of patients clinically diagnosed as osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy normal subjects, and subjects with symptoms of OA but not clinically confirmed.

A person standing with osteoarthritis measuring equipment. Also a bar chart comparing a normal bone, and a bone with osteoarthritis. The graph shows the bone with osteoarthritis measures a lower damping capacity
Pre-clinical screening for osteoarthritis.

A Novel Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis Screening Tool (2004-2007)

(NIAMS #1R21AR51702)
PI: A. Bhattacharya  

Purpose: This study was designed to develop and test a novel, non-invasive (without ionizing radiation) bone vibration-based screening tool for measuring mechanical properties of bones among women suffering from post-menopausal osteoporosis. The goal is to use this tool for predicting fractures in osteoporosis patients.

A person wired to measurement equipment. Also, a chart showing the location of measurement points. 7th Thoracic Vertebra, 3rd Lumbar vertebra, Lateral Femoral Condyle, Tibial Tubrosity, and Shin Bone immediately above ankle.
Pre-clinical screening for osteoporosis. Sensor placement 

A chart showing lower damping values across all measurement areas for patients with osteoporosis

BSA Patent
Co-inventors:  Amit Bhattacharya and Nelson B Watts; Serial No. 12/402,586, approved 2014.

Publication: Bhattacharya A, Watts N, Davis K, Kotowski S, Shukla R, Dwivedi A, and Coleman R. “Dynamic Bone Quality – A Non-Invasive Measure Of Bone’s Biomechanical Property in Osteoporosis” Journal of Clinical Densitometry: Assessment of Skeletal Health, vol. 13 (2): 228-236, 2010. PMCID: PMC2862806; PMID: 20347363

Transformative Risk Assessment in Osteoporosis Fracture (2012-2013)

(UC Provost Pilot Research Project Program - College of Medicine’s Discovery Acceleration Initiative)
PI: A. Bhattacharya

Purpose: We evaluated functional measures of neuromuscular integrity and bone’s resistance to fracture as a combined tool in discriminating osteoporosis patients with and without fractures. Functional aspects of neuromuscular integrity were quantified with a noninvasive measure of static and dynamic functional postural stability (FPS) and fracture resistance was obtained with bone shock absorption in patients with osteoporosis aged 65-85. We compared our measures with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX [World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Metabolic Bone Diseases, Sheffield, UK]) in women with osteoporosis, some with and some without vertebral fractures.

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A person walking around a cone in a timed 'up and go' test
Instrumented Timed Up and Go test

A bar chart showing Above Knee, Below Knee, and Upper Back measurements of patients with osteoporosis showing a lower damping level for patients with a fracture versus without a fracture

Fig. Mean ± standard error of the mean damping values at various anatomical sites of patients with osteoporosis (with and without fracture) for left leg.

Publication: Bhattacharya A, Watts N, Dwivedi A, Shukla R, Mani A, Diab D, “Combined Measures of Dynamic Bone Quality and Postural Balance - A Fracture Risk Assessment Approach in Osteoporosis” J Clin Densitom. 2016 Apr-Jun; 19(2):154-64. doi: 10.1016/j.jocd.2015.03.005. Epub 2015 Apr 30 PMID: 25936482

Parkinson’s Disease Studies (2004-2014)

(Davis Phinney Foundation, James J. and Joan A. Gardner Family Center, Medtronic)
PIs:  F. Revilla, MD, A. Bhattacharya

Purpose: A series of research studies were conducted to investigate the effect of dopaminergic medication and/or deep brain stimulation (DBS) on postural balance, gait, and Parkinson’s disease symptoms.

A person standing on a firm surface, and a person standing on a foam pad.
Measuring the effect of deep brain stimulation on postural stability.

A bar chart of 4 seperate measurements. Eyes closed and opened on a firm surface, and eyes closed and opened on a foam surface. Each result shows the patients with brain stimulation have a lesser sway length on every surface
Two charts, the left showing a larger sway area for a parkinsons patient with brain stimulators on versus brain stimulators off.

Publications: Shukla A, Mani A, Bhattacharya A, and Revilla F, “Understanding Postural Response of Parkinson’s Subjects Using Nonlinear Dynamics and Support Vector Machines” Austin J Biomed Eng. 2014;1(1): 5

Shukla A, Mani A, Bhattacharya A, and Revilla F, “Understanding Postural Response of Parkinson’s Subjects Using Nonlinear Dynamics and Support Vector Machines” Austin J Biomed Eng. 2014;1(1): 5

Conferences Presentations: Mani A, Dunning K, Larsh T, Cox C, Shukla A, Bhattacharya  A, Revilla FJ, “Dynamic fall-risk predictors in Parkinson's disease.” Presented at the American Academy of Neurology 66th Annual Meeting, at the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, April 26-May 3, 2014.

Larsh TR, Bhattacharya A, Duker AP, Mani A, Cox C, Raghavan R, Gartner M, Revilla FJ, “Effect of Dorsal and Ventral Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation on Actual and Perceived Sense of Postural Balance.” Presented at the 17th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, Sydney, Australia, June 16-20, 2013.

Larsh, TR, Mani A, Bhattacharya A, Duker AP, Raghavan R, Cox C, Revilla FJ, “Effect of Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation on Gait Stability during Dual Tasking Conditions in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.” American Academy of Neurology 65th Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, March 16-23, 2013.

Larsh TR, Bhattacharya A, Duker AP, Cox C, Succop P, Revilla FJ, “Effect of Dopaminergic Medication on Postural Sway in Parkinson’s Disease.” The Movement Disorder Society’s 16th International Congress of Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Meeting, Dublin, Ireland, June 16-21, 2012.

Revilla FJ, Duker AP, Miranda HA, Larsh TR, McMasters MD, Mandybur GT, Espay AJ, Cox C, Bhattacharya A,  “Effects of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation on Acceleration of the Swing Phase of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease.” The 14th International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2010.

Revilla FJ, Duker AP, Miranda HA, Mandybur GT,  Gartner M, Cox C,  Espay AJ, Bhattacharya A, “Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Improves Postural Sway in Parkinson’s Disease.”  Presented at Movement Disorder Society International Congress, Kyoto, Japan, October 28-November 2, 2006.

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