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Increased Carbon Dioxide Respiration Prevents the Effects of Acceleration/Deceleration Elicited Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Reeder EL, O'Connell CJ, Collins SM, Traubert OD, Norman SV, Cáceres RA, Sah R, Smith DW, Robson MJ. (2023) Neuroscience 509:20-35 


McMurray KMJ and Sah R (2022) Neuroimmune mechanisms in fear and panic pathophysiology. Frontiers in Psychiatry 13:1015349

McMurray KMJ, Winter A, Ahlbrand R, Wilson A, Shukla S, Sah R (2022) Subfornical organ interleukin 1 receptor: A novel regulator of spontaneous and conditioned fear associated behaviors in mice. Brain Behavior Immun.;101: 304-317.

Winter AW, Ahlbrand R, Shukla S, James Jones, McMurray KMJ, Sah R (2022) The subfornical organ regulates acidosis evoked fear by engaging microglial acid sensor TDAG8 and forebrain neurocircuits in mice Journal of Neuroscience Research 100:1732–1746

Wang J, Ware K, Bedolla A, Allgire E, Turcato FC, Weed M, Sah R, Luo Y.  Disruption of Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Accelerates Age-Related Neurogenesis Decline and Abolishes Stroke-Induced Neurogenesis and Leads to Increased Anxiety Behavior in Stroke Mice. (2022) Transl Stroke Res. 13(5):830-844. 


Allgire E, Lewkowich I, McAlees J, and Sah R (2021) Asthma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): emerging links, models and mechanisms Brain Behavior Immunity. 97: 275-285

Emily Johnson, Lewkowich I, McAlees J, and Sah R Asthma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): emerging links, models and mechanisms (2021) Brain Behav Immun (In Press)


Lewkowich I, Ahlbrand R, Johnson E, McAlees J, Nawreen N, Raman R, Lingel I, Hargis J, Hoover C, Sah R (2020) Modulation of fear behavior and neuroimmune alterations in house dust mite exposed A/J mice, a model of severe asthma. Brain Behav Immun. May 4

McMurray KMJ, Gray A, Horn P, Sah R (2020) High Behavioral Sensitivity to Carbon Dioxide Associates with Enhanced Fear Memory and Altered Forebrain Neuronal Activation. Neuroscience. 429:92-105


McMurray KMJ, Vollmer LL, Ahlbrand R, Thomas J, Winter A, Lewkowich IP, Sah R. (2019) Immunomodulatory T cell death associated gene-8 (TDAG8) receptor in depression-associated behaviors. Physiol Behav. 209:

Winter A, Ahlbrand R, Sah R (2019) Recruitment of central angiotensin II type 1 receptor associated neurocircuits in carbon dioxide associated fear. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 92:378-386.

McMurray KMJ, Strawn JR, Sah R (2019) Fluoxetine modulates spontaneous and conditioned behaviors to carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation and alters forebrain-midbrain neuronal activation. Neuroscience 396:108-118

Wilson MA, Liberzon I, Lindsey ML, Lokshina Y, Risbrough VB, Sah R, Wood SK, Williamson JB, Spinale FG. (2019) Common pathways and communication between the brain and heart: connecting post-traumatic stress disorder and heart failure. Stress. 22:530-547


Schubert I, Ahlbrand R, Winter A, Vollmer LL, Lewkowich I, Sah R. (2018) Enhanced fear and altered neuronal activation in forebrain limbic regions of CX3CR1-deficient mice. Brain Behav Immun. 68:34-43

Strawn JR, Vollmer LL, McMurray KMJ, Mills JA, Mossman SA, Varney ST, Schroeder HK, Sah R. (2018) Acid-sensing T cell death associated gene-8 receptor expression in panic disorder. Brain Behav Immun. 67: 36-41


Winter A, Ahlbrand R, Naik D, Sah R (2017) Differential behavioral sensitivity to carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation in rats. Neuroscience. 346: 423-433.

(Commentary highlighting this article Battaglia M (2017) Sensitivity to carbon dioxide and translational studies of anxiety disorders 27: Neuroscience 434-436)


Vollmer LL, Ghosal S, McGuire JL, Ahlbrand RL, Li KY, Santin JM, Ratliff-Rang CA, Patrone LG, Rush J, Lewkowich IP, Herman JP, Putnam RW, Sah R.. (2016)  Microglial acid sensing regulates carbon dioxide evoked fear.  Biological Psychiatry, 80(7):541-51

(Article commentary by Jennifer B. Dwyer, David A. Ross Modern Microglia: Novel Targets in Psychiatric Neuroscience Biological Psychiatry, 80, (7,) 2016, e47-e49) Cover Art Credit for this issue

Vollmer LL, Schmeltzer SN, Schurdak J, Ahlbrand R, Rush, JE, Dolgas, CM, Baccei, ML and Sah R (2016) Neuropeptide Y impairs retrieval of extinguished fear and modulates excitability of neurons in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 36(4):1306-1315

Schmeltzer SN, Herman JP, Sah R (2016)  Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A translational update. Exp Neurol.;284:196-210

Smith BL, Schmeltzer SN, Packard BA, Sah R, Herman JP. (2016) Divergent effects of repeated restraint versus chronic variable stress on prefrontal cortical immune status after LPS injection. Brain Behav Immun. 57: 263-270

Sun X, Tommasi E, Molina D, Sah R, Brosnihan KB, Diz DI, Petrovic S (2016) Deletion of proton-sensing receptor GPR4 associates with lower blood pressure and lower binding of angiotensin II receptor in SFO. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016 Dec 1;311(6):F1260-F1266

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