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Photo of  Sandra L. Starnes, MD

Sandra L. Starnes, MD

Professor of Clinical

Division Chief of Cardiothoracic Surgery; Dr. John B. Flege, Jr. Chair

Surgery | College of Medicine

Education/Credentials
  • Bachelor's Degree: University of Illinois
  • Medical Degree: University of Illinois
  • Fellowship: University of Washington
  • Residency: St. Joseph Mercy Medical Center
  • Residency: Indiana University
Board Certifications & Licenses

American Board of Surgery (Certification Date: 20030402) - (Recertification Date: 20111129)
American Board of Thoracic Surgery (Certification Date: 20060602) - (Recertification Date: 20141201)

Contact Information
Research Interests

General Thoracic Surgery, Lung Cancer, Esophageal Cancer

Clinical Interests

Thoracic Surgery

Lung Cancer

Rare Lung Disease

Bronchiolo-Alveolar Adenocarcinoma

Bronchogenic Carcinoma

Malignant Mesothelioma (Mesothelioma)

Malignant Pleural Effusion

Mediastinal Cancers

Mediastinal Tumors

Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

Other Complex Thoracic Cancers

Pectus Carinatum

Pleural Cancers

Respiratory Cancers

Respiratory Papilloma

Small Cell Carcinoma

Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

Solitary Pulmonary Nodule

Thoracic Cancer

Small-Cell Lung Cancer

Peer Reviewed Publications

Shipe, Maren E; Deppen, Stephen A; Sullivan, Shelbi; Kammer, Michael; Starnes, Sandra L; Wilson, David O; Massion, Pierre P; Grogan, Eric L 2020. Validation of Histoplasmosis Enzyme Immunoassay to Evaluate Suspicious Lung Nodules. The Annals of thoracic surgery, ,

Starnes, Sandra L 2020. Commentary: Preoperative localization: Another tool in the box. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 160 2, 540

Sullivan, Camille; Brown, Nicholas E; Vasiliauskas, Juozas; Pathrose, Peterson; Starnes, Sandra L; Waltz, Susan E 2020. Prostate Epithelial RON Signaling Promotes M2 Macrophage Activation to Drive Prostate Tumor Growth and Progression. Molecular cancer research : MCR, 18 8, 1244-1254

Starnes, Sandra L 2019. Analyzing intraoperative conversion of thoracoscopic lobectomy: acceptable outcome or failure? Journal of thoracic disease, 11 3, 643-645

Starnes, Sandra L 2018. General thoracic surgical training: The future is bright, but there will be bumps ahead. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, ,

Starnes, Sandra L; Wolujewicz, Michael; Guitron, Julian; Williams, Valerie; Scheler, Jennifer; Ristagno, Ross 2018. Radiotracer localization of nonpalpable pulmonary nodules: A single-center experience. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, ,

Starnes, Sandra L 2017. The American Association for Thoracic Surgery 2016 ethics forum: Preoperative disclosure: In all honesty, my results…. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 153 5, 1209-1211

Chu, Danny; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Iannettoni, Mark D; Ikonomidis, John S; Odell, David D; Shemin, Richard J; Starnes, Sandra L; Stein, William; Badhwar, Vinay 2016. Are There Gaps in Current Thoracic Surgery Residency Training Programs? The Annals of thoracic surgery, 101 6, 2350-5

Benight, Nancy M; Wagh, Purnima K; Zinser, Glendon M; Peace, Belinda E; Stuart, William D; Vasiliauskas, Juozas; Pathrose, Peterson; Starnes, Sandra L; Waltz, Susan E 2015. HGFL supports mammary tumorigenesis by enhancing tumor cell intrinsic survival and influencing macrophage and T-cell responses. Oncotarget, ,

Fernando, Hiran C; Landreneau, Rodney J; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Nichols, Francis C; DiPetrillo, Thomas A; Meyers, Bryan F; Heron, Dwight E; Hillman, Shauna L; Jones, David R; Starnes, Sandra L; Tan, Angelina D; Daly, Benedict D T; Putnam, Joe B 2015. Analysis of longitudinal quality-of-life data in high-risk operable patients with lung cancer: results from the ACOSOG Z4032 (Alliance) multicenter randomized trial. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 149 3, 718-25; discussion 7

Sutton, Jeffrey M; Nussbaum, Michael S; Vu, Doan; Diwan, Tayyab S; Starnes, Sandra L; Shah, Shimul A 2015. Splenopneumopexy: decompression of portal hypertension in the setting of portal venous occlusive disease. Digestive diseases and sciences, 60 4, 1101-5

Engelhardt, Kathryn E; Starnes, Sandra L; Hanseman, Dennis J; Guitron, Julian 2014. Epidural versus subpleural analgesia for pulmonary resections: a comparison of morbidities. The American surgeon, 80 2, 109-16

Fernando, Hiran C; Landreneau, Rodney J; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Nichols, Francis C; Hillman, Shauna L; Heron, Dwight E; Meyers, Bryan F; DiPetrillo, Thomas A; Jones, David R; Starnes, Sandra L; Tan, Angelina D; Daly, Benedict D T; Putnam, Joe B 2014. Impact of brachytherapy on local recurrence rates after sublobar resection: results from ACOSOG Z4032 (Alliance), a phase III randomized trial for high-risk operable non-small-cell lung cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 32 23, 2456-62

Lebastchi, Amir H; Tackett, John J; Argenziano, Michael; Calhoon, John H; Gasparri, Mario G; Halkos, Michael E; Hicks, George L; Iannettoni, Mark D; Ikonomidis, John S; McCarthy, Patrick M; Starnes, Sandra L; Tong, Betty C; Yuh, David D 2014. First nationwide survey of US integrated 6-year cardiothoracic surgical residency program directors. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 148 2, 408-15.e1

Vasiliauskas, Juozas; Nashu, Madison A; Pathrose, Peterson; Starnes, Sandra L; Waltz, Susan E 2014. Hepatocyte growth factor-like protein is required for prostate tumor growth in the TRAMP mouse model. Oncotarget, 5 14, 5547-58

Alsidawi, S; Morris, J C; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, K A; Starnes, S L; Karim, N A 2013. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lung: a case report and literature review. Case reports in oncological medicine, 2013 , 625243

Kesler, Kenneth A; Pillai, Saila T; Birdas, Thomas J; Rieger, Karen M; Okereke, Ikenna C; Ceppa, DuyKhanh; Socas, Juan; Starnes, Sandra L 2013. "Supercharged" isoperistaltic colon interposition for long-segment esophageal reconstruction. The Annals of thoracic surgery, 95 4, 1162-8; discussion 1

Samson, Pamela; Guitron, Julian; Reed, Michael F; Hanseman, Dennis J; Starnes, Sandra L 2013. Predictors of conversion to thoracotomy for video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy: a retrospective analysis and the influence of computed tomography-based calcification assessment. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 145 6, 1512-8

Rodriguez, Kelcie A; Guitron, Julian; Hanseman, Dennis J; Williams, Valerie; Starnes, Sandra L 2012. Adjuvant chemotherapy and age-related biases in non-small cell lung cancer. The Annals of thoracic surgery, 94 6, 1810-4

Starnes, Sandra L; Pathrose, Peterson; Wang, Jiang; Succop, Paul; Morris, John C; Bridges, James; Kupert, Elena Y; Anderson, Marshall 2012. Clinical and molecular predictors of recurrence in stage I non-small cell lung cancer. The Annals of thoracic surgery, 93 5, 1606-12

Fernando, Hiran C; Landreneau, Rodney J; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Hillman, Shauna L; Nichols, Francis C; Meyers, Bryan; DiPetrillo, Thomas A; Heron, Dwight E; Jones, David R; Daly, Benedict D T; Starnes, Sandra L; Tan, Angelina; Putnam, Joe B 2011. Thirty- and ninety-day outcomes after sublobar resection with and without brachytherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: results from a multicenter phase III study. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 142 5, 1143-51

Fernando, Hiran C; Landreneau, Rodney J; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Hillman, Shauna L; Nichols, Francis C; Meyers, Bryan; DiPetrillo, Thomas A; Heron, Dwight; Jones, David R; Daly, Benedict D T; Starnes, Sandra L; Hatter, Jeffrey E; Putnam, Joe B 2011. The impact of adjuvant brachytherapy with sublobar resection on pulmonary function and dyspnea in high-risk patients with operable disease: preliminary results from the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z4032 trial. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 142 3, 554-62

Starnes, Sandra L; Reed, Michael F; Meyer, Cris A; Shipley, Ralph T; Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman; Pina, Elsira M; Redmond, Kevin; Huffman, Lynn C; Pandalai, Prakash K; Howington, John A 2011. Can lung cancer screening by computed tomography be effective in areas with endemic histoplasmosis? The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 141 3, 688-93

Borchers, Michael T; Wesselkamper, Scott C; Curull, Victor; Ramirez-Sarmiento, Alba; Sánchez-Font, Albert; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Coronell, Carlos; Lloreta, Josep; Agusti, Alvar G; Gea, Joaquim; Howington, John A; Reed, Michael F; Starnes, Sandra L; Harris, Nathaniel L; Vitucci, Mark; Eppert, Bryan L; Motz, Gregory T; Fogel, Kevin; McGraw, Dennis W; Tichelaar, Jay W; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio 2009. Sustained CTL activation by murine pulmonary epithelial cells promotes the development of COPD-like disease. The Journal of clinical investigation, 119 3, 636-49

Huber N, Giglia J, Starnes S, Tsuei B 2009. Concomitant blunt aortic and thoracic duct injury. Injury Extra , 40 , 81

Lewis, Jaime D; Starnes, Sandra L; Pandalai, Prakash K; Huffman, Lynn C; Bulcao, Christian F; Pritts, Timothy A; Reed, Michael F 2009. Traumatic diaphragmatic injury: experience from a level I trauma center. Surgery, 146 4, 578-83; discussion 5

Reed, Michael F; Lucia, Mark W; Starnes, Sandra L; Merrill, Walter H; Howington, John A 2008. Thoracoscopic lobectomy: introduction of a new technique into a thoracic surgery training program. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 136 2, 376-81

Huffmanm, L C; Pandalai, P K; Boulton, B J; James, L; Starnes, S L; Reed, M F; Howington, J A; Nussbaum, M S 2007. Robotic Heller myotomy: a safe operation with higher postoperative quality-of-life indices. Surgery, 142 4, 613-8; discussion 61

Vagal A, Starnes S, Bakkar R, Meyer C 2006. Semi-invasive aspergillosis with chest wall and spinal involvement: A case report and discussion. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice, 14 , 369

Starnes S, Duncan B, Fraga C, Desai S, Jones T, Mathur S, Rosenthal G, Lupinetti F 2002. Rat model of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations after right superior cavopulmonary anastomosis. American Journal of Physiology, 283 , H2151

Starnes, Duncan B, Kneebone J, Patterson K, Fraga C, Killiam K, Mathur S, Lupinetti F 2001. Angiogenic proteins in the lungs of children after cavopulmonary anastomosis. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery , 122 , 518

Starnes, Duncan B, Kneebone J, Fraga C, States S, Rosenthal G, Lupinetti F 2000. Pulmonary microvessel density is a marker of angiogenesis in children after cavopulmonary anastomosis. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery , 120 , 902

Starnes, Duncan B, Kneebone J, Rosenthal G, Jones T, Grifka R, Cecchin F, Owens D, Fearneyhough C, Lupinetti F 2000. Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery , 119 , 534

2. Starnes S, Wolk S, Lampman R, Shanley C, Prager R, Kong B, Fowler J, Page J, Babcock S, Lange L, Erlandson E, Whitehouse W 1999. Noninvasive evaluation of hand circulation before radial artery harvest for coronary artery bypass grafting. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery , 117 , 261

3. Duncan B, Kneebone J, Chi E, Hraska V, Isik F, Rosenthal G, Jones T, Starnes S, Lupinetti F 1999. A detailed histologic analysis of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery , 117 , 931

Starnes S, Klein P, Magagna L, Pomerantz R 1998. CT grading is useful in selecting patients for nonoperative management of blunt splenic injury. American Surgeon, 64 , 743

Kupert E.;Anderson M.;Liu Y.;Succop P.;Levin L.;Wang J.;Wikenheiser-brokamp K.;Chen P.;Pinney S.M.;Macdonald T.;Dong Z.;Starnes S.;Lu S. 12-09-2011. Plasma secretory phospholipase A2-IIa as a potential biomarker for lung cancer in patients with soli BMC Cancer, 11 ,

Vachani A.;Hammoud Z.;Springmeyer S.;Cohen N.;Nguyen D.;Williamson C.;Starnes S.;Hunsucker S.;Law S.;Li X.J.;Porter A.;Kearney P. 12-01-2015. Clinical Utility of a Plasma Protein Classifier for Indeterminate Lung Nodules Lung, 193 6, 1023-1027

Kent M.;Landreneau R.;Mandrekar S.;Hillman S.;Nichols F.;Jones D.;Starnes S.;Tan A.;Putnam J.;Meyers B.;Daly B.;Fernando H. 11-01-2013. Segmentectomy versus wedge resection for non-small cell lung cancer in high-risk operable patients Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 96 5, 1747-1755

Vagal A.;Starnes S.;Bakkar R.;Meyer C. 11-01-2006. Semi-invasive aspergillosis with chest wall and spinal involvement: A case report and discussion Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice, 14 6, 369-372

Starnes S.L. 10-01-2019. Commentary: Bad biology, or victim of circumstance? Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 158 4, e141

Macke R.;Ghanta R.;Starnes S.;Harken A. 10-01-2018. So, you are looking for a job: Pearls for a successful first cardiothoracic job search Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 156 4, 1575-1584

Starnes S.;Klein P.;Magagna L.;Pomerantz R. 08-11-1998. Computed tomographic grading is useful in the selection of patients for nonoperative management of b American Surgeon, 64 8, 743-749

Starnes S.L. 08-01-2019. Commentary: Is the right ventricle an innocent bystander in pulmonary resection? Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 158 2, 566-567

Kent M.;Mandrekar S.;Landreneau R.;Nichols F.;DiPetrillo T.;Meyers B.;Heron D.;Jones D.;Tan A.;Starnes S.;Putnam J.;Fernando H. 07-01-2016. Impact of Sublobar Resection on Pulmonary Function: Long-Term Results from American College of Surge Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 102 1, 230-238

Kent M.;Mandrekar S.;Landreneau R.;Nichols F.;Foster N.;Dipetrillo T.;Meyers B.;Heron D.;Jones D.;Tan A.;Starnes S.;Putnam J.;Fernando H. 07-01-2016. A Nomogram to Predict Recurrence and Survival of High-Risk Patients Undergoing Sublobar Resection fo Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 102 1, 239-246

Liu P.;Morrison C.;Wang L.;Xiong D.;Vedell P.;Cui P.;Hua X.;Ding F.;Lu Y.;James M.;Ebben J.D.;Xu H.;Adjei A.A.;Head K.;Andrae J.W.;Tschannen M.R.;Jacob H.;Pan J.;Zhang Q.;Van den bergh F.;Xiao H.;Lo K.C.;Patel J.;Richmond T.;Watt M.A.;Albert T.;Selzer R.;Anderson M.;Wang J.;Wang Y.;Starnes S.;Yang P.;You M. 07-01-2012. Identification of somatic mutations in non-small cell lung carcinomas using whole-exome sequencing Carcinogenesis, 33 7, 1270-1276

Huber N.;Giglia J.;Starnes S.;Tsuei B. 05-01-2009. Concomitant blunt aortic and thoracic duct injury Injury Extra, 40 5, 81-83

Goodman M.;Lewis J.;Guitron J.;Reed M.;Pritts T.;Starnes S. 04-01-2013. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for acute thoracic trauma Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock, 6 2, 106-109

William B.;Cundiff D.;McCormack F.;Wikenheiser-Brokamp K.;Starnes S.;Kotloff R.;Benzaquen S. 02-15-2014. Successful management of a chronic, refractory bronchopleural fistula with endobronchial valves foll American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 189 4, 490-491

Levinsky N.C.;Wima K.;Morris M.C.;Ahmad S.A.;Shah S.A.;Starnes S.L.;Van Haren R.M.;Patel S.H.;Sussman J.J.;Guitron J. 01-01-2019. Outcome of delayed versus timely esophagectomy after chemoradiation for esophageal adenocarcinoma Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, ,

Starnes S. 01-01-2019. Analyzing intraoperative conversion of thoracoscopic lobectomy: Acceptable outcome or failure? Journal of Thoracic Disease, 11 3, 643-645

Starnes S.L. 01-01-2019. Commentary: Preoperative localization: Another tool in the box Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, ,

Dong Z.;Meller J.;Succop P.;Wang J.;Wikenheiser-Brokamp K.;Starnes S.;Lu S. 01-01-2014. Secretory phospholipase A2-IIa upregulates HER/HER2-elicited signaling in lung cancer cells International Journal of Oncology, 45 3, 978-984

Karim N.;Bui H.;Pathrose P.;Starnes S.;Patil N.;Shehata M.;Mostafa A.;Rao M.;Zarzour A.;Anderson M. 01-01-2014. The use of pharmacogenomics for selection of therapy in Non-Small-Cell lung cancer Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology, 8 , 139-144

Starnes S.;Pathrose P.;Wang J.;Succop P.;Morris J.;Bridges J.;Kupert E.;Anderson M. 01-01-2012. Clinical and molecular predictors of recurrence in stage i non-small cell lung cancer Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 93 5, 1606-1612