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Photo of  George Babcock, PhD

George Babcock, PhD

Professor-Emeritus

COM Surgery Research

Education/Credentials
  • Bachelor's Degree: Muskingum College
  • Master's Degree: North Dakota State University
  • Doctoral Degree: University of Nebraska Medical Center
  • Postdoctoral Training: University of North Carolina
Research Interests

Immunology of Burns, Trauma and Infectious Disease

Contact Information
  • Shriners Hospitals for Children - Cincinnati
  • Room 446
  • 3229 Burnet Avenue
  • Cincinnati, Ohio 45229
  • Office 513-872-6231
  • Email george.babcock@uc.edu

Peer Reviewed Publications

Osterburg, Andrew R; Hexley, Philip; Supp, Dorothy M; Robinson, Chad T; Noel, Greg; Ogle, Cora; Boyce, Steven T; Aronow, Bruce J; Babcock, George F 2013. Concerns over interspecies transcriptional comparisons in mice and humans after trauma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110 36, E3370

Babcock, George F; Hernandez, Laura; Yadav, Ekta; Schwemberger, Sandy; Dugan, Amy 2012. The burn wound inflammatory response is influenced by midazolam. Inflammation, 35 1, 259-70

Hexley, Philip; Robinson, Chad T; Osterburg, Andrew R; Babcock, George F 2012. Circulating microparticles do not all share biophysical light scatter properties with immune complexes when analyzed by flow cytometry. Blood, 120 7, 1528-9

Swope, Viki B; Jameson, Joshua A; McFarland, Kevin L; Supp, Dorothy M; Miller, William E; McGraw, Dennis W; Patel, Mira A; Nix, Matthew A; Millhauser, Glenn L; Babcock, George F; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2012. Defining MC1R regulation in human melanocytes by its agonist ?-melanocortin and antagonists agouti signaling protein and ?-defensin 3. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 132 9, 2255-62

Tichy, Elisia D; Pillai, Resmi; Deng, Li; Tischfield, Jay A; Hexley, Philip; Babcock, George F; Stambrook, Peter J 2012. The abundance of Rad51 protein in mouse embryonic stem cells is regulated at multiple levels. Stem cell research, 9 2, 124-34

Kavanaugh, Gina M; Wise-Draper, Trisha M; Morreale, Richard J; Morrison, Monique A; Gole, Boris; Schwemberger, Sandy; Tichy, Elisia D; Lu, Lu; Babcock, George F; Wells, James M; Drissi, Rachid; Bissler, John J; Stambrook, Peter J; Andreassen, Paul R; Wiesmüller, Lisa; Wells, Susanne I 2011. The human DEK oncogene regulates DNA damage response signaling and repair. Nucleic acids research, 39 17, 7465-76

Tichy, Elisia D; Pillai, Resmi; Deng, Li; Liang, Li; Tischfield, Jay; Schwemberger, Sandy J; Babcock, George F; Stambrook, Peter J 2010. Mouse embryonic stem cells, but not somatic cells, predominantly use homologous recombination to repair double-strand DNA breaks. Stem cells and development, 19 11, 1699-711

Azhar, Mohamad; Yin, Moying; Bommireddy, Ramireddy; Duffy, John J; Yang, Junqi; Pawlowski, Sharon A; Boivin, Gregory P; Engle, Sandra J; Sanford, L P; Grisham, Christina; Singh, Ram R; Babcock, George F; Doetschman, Thomas 2009. Generation of mice with a conditional allele for transforming growth factor beta 1 gene. Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000), 47 6, 423-31

Bommireddy, R; Bueno, O F; Martin, J; Ormsby, I; Chen, H; Gard, C; Molkentin, J D; Boivin, G P; Babcock, G F; Doetschman, T 2009. Calcineurin deficiency decreases inflammatory lesions in transforming growth factor beta1-deficient mice. Clinical and experimental immunology, 158 3, 317-24

Fumagalli, Stefano; Di Cara, Alessandro; Neb-Gulati, Arti; Natt, Francois; Schwemberger, Sandy; Hall, Jonathan; Babcock, George F; Bernardi, Rosa; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Thomas, George 2009. Absence of nucleolar disruption after impairment of 40S ribosome biogenesis reveals an rpL11-translation-dependent mechanism of p53 induction. Nature cell biology, 11 4, 501-8

Jacobson, Eric M; Yang, Heyi; Menconi, Francesca; Wang, Rong; Osman, Roman; Skrabanek, Luce; Li, Cheuk Wun; Fadlalla, Mohammed; Gandhi, Alisha; Chaturvedi, Vijaya; Smith, Eric P; Schwemberger, Sandy; Osterburg, Andrew; Babcock, George F; Tomer, Yaron 2009. Employing a recombinant HLA-DR3 expression system to dissect major histocompatibility complex II-thyroglobulin peptide dynamism: a genetic, biochemical, and reverse immunological perspective. The Journal of biological chemistry, 284 49, 34231-43

Bommireddy, Ramireddy; Babcock, George F; Singh, Ram R; Doetschman, Thomas 2008. TGFbeta1 deficiency does not affect the generation and maintenance of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ putative Treg cells, but causes their numerical inadequacy and loss of regulatory function. Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.), 127 2, 206-13

Caldwell, Julie M; Chen, Yinhuai; Schollaert, Kaila L; Theis, James F; Babcock, George F; Newlon, Carol S; Sanchez, Yolanda 2008. Orchestration of the S-phase and DNA damage checkpoint pathways by replication forks from early origins. The Journal of cell biology, 180 6, 1073-86

Dugan, Amy L; Schwemberger, Sandy; Noel, Greg J; Babcock, George F; Ogle, Cora K; Buckley, Donna J; Horseman, Nelson D; Gregerson, Karen A 2007. Stress and prolactin effects on bone marrow myeloid cells, serum chemokine and serum glucocorticoid levels in mice. Neuroimmunomodulation, 14 6, 287-96

Markey, M P; Bergseid, J; Bosco, E E; Stengel, K; Xu, H; Mayhew, C N; Schwemberger, S J; Braden, W A; Jiang, Y; Babcock, G F; Jegga, A G; Aronow, B J; Reed, M F; Wang, J Y J; Knudsen, E S 2007. Loss of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor: differential action on transcriptional programs related to cell cycle control and immune function. Oncogene, 26 43, 6307-18

Bommireddy, Ramireddy; Pathak, Leena J; Martin, Jennifer; Ormsby, Ilona; Engle, Sandra J; Boivin, Gregory P; Babcock, George F; Eriksson, Anna U; Singh, Ram R; Doetschman, Thomas 2006. Self-antigen recognition by TGF beta1-deficient T cells causes their activation and systemic inflammation. Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology, 86 10, 1008-19

Wetherill, Yelena B; Hess-Wilson, Janet K; Comstock, Clay E S; Shah, Supriya A; Buncher, C Ralph; Sallans, Larry; Limbach, Patrick A; Schwemberger, Sandy; Babcock, George F; Knudsen, Karen E 2006. Bisphenol A facilitates bypass of androgen ablation therapy in prostate cancer. Molecular cancer therapeutics, 5 12, 3181-90

Keshavan, Pavitra; Deem, Tracy L; Schwemberger, Sandy J; Babcock, George F; Cook-Mills, Joan M; Zucker, Stephen D 2005. Unconjugated bilirubin inhibits VCAM-1-mediated transendothelial leukocyte migration. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 174 6, 3709-18

Mayhew, Christopher N; Bosco, Emily E; Fox, Sejal R; Okaya, Tomohisa; Tarapore, Pheruza; Schwemberger, Sandy J; Babcock, George F; Lentsch, Alex B; Fukasawa, Kenji; Knudsen, Erik S 2005. Liver-specific pRB loss results in ectopic cell cycle entry and aberrant ploidy. Cancer research, 65 11, 4568-77

Babcock, George F 2004. Common problems encountered by IACUCs--one chair's perspective. Contemporary topics in laboratory animal science, 43 3, 70-1

Babcock, George F 2004. Intracellular cytokines. Current protocols in cytometry, Chapter 9 , Unit 9.9

Dugan, Amy L; Schwemberger, Sandy; Babcock, George F; Buckley, Donna; Buckley, Arthur R; Ogle, Cora K; Horseman, Nelson D 2004. Effects of prolactin level on burn-induced aberrations in myelopoiesis. Shock (Augusta, Ga.), 21 2, 151-9

Keshavan, Pavitra; Schwemberger, Sandy J; Smith, Darcey L H; Babcock, George F; Zucker, Stephen D 2004. Unconjugated bilirubin induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells by triggering mitochondrial depolarization. International journal of cancer, 112 3, 433-45

Babcock, George F 2003. Predictive medicine: severe trauma and burns. Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry, 53 1, 48-53

Bommireddy, Ramireddy; Ormsby, Ilona; Yin, Moying; Boivin, Gregory P; Babcock, George F; Doetschman, Thomas 2003. TGF beta 1 inhibits Ca2+-calcineurin-mediated activation in thymocytes. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 170 7, 3645-52

Bommireddy, Ramireddy; Saxena, Vijay; Ormsby, Ilona; Yin, Moying; Boivin, Gregory P; Babcock, George F; Singh, Ram R; Doetschman, Thomas 2003. TGF-beta 1 regulates lymphocyte homeostasis by preventing activation and subsequent apoptosis of peripheral lymphocytes. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 170 9, 4612-22

Heinen, Christopher D; Goss, Kathleen Heppner; Cornelius, James R; Babcock, George F; Knudsen, Erik S; Kowalik, Timothy; Groden, Joanna 2002. The APC tumor suppressor controls entry into S-phase through its ability to regulate the cyclin D/RB pathway. Gastroenterology, 123 3, 751-63

Gibson, S W; Valente, J F; Alexander, J W; Custer, D A; Li, B G; Frede, S; Babcock, G F; Ogle, C K 2000. Nutritional immunomodulation leads to enhanced allograft survival in combination with cyclosporine A and rapamycin, but not FK506. Transplantation, 69 10, 2034-8

Babcock, G F 1999. Quantitation of phagocytosis by confocal microscopy. Methods in enzymology, 307 , 319-28

Gibson, S W; Valente, J F; Alexander, J W; Custer, D A; Babcock, G F; Ogle, C K 1999. The effect of nutritional immunomodulation on cardiac allograft survival in rats receiving mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine A, and donor-specific transfusion. The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation, 18 3, 185-9

Jawa, R S; Quaid, G A; Williams, M A; Cave, C M; Robinson, C T; Babcock, G F; Lieberman, M A; Witt, D; Solomkin, J S 1999. Tumor necrosis factor alpha regulates CXC chemokine receptor expression and function. Shock (Augusta, Ga.), 11 6, 385-90

Le Poole, I C; Yang, F; Brown, T L; Cornelius, J; Babcock, G F; Das, P K; Boissy, R E 1999. Altered gene expression in melanocytes exposed to 4-tertiary butyl phenol (4-TBP): upregulation of the A2b adenosine receptor 1. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 113 5, 725-31

Rodeberg, D A; Meyer, J G; Babcock, G F 1999. Heat shock response: presence and effects in burn patient neutrophils. Journal of leukocyte biology, 66 5, 773-80

Alexander, J W; Valente, J F; Greenberg, N A; Custer, D A; Ogle, C K; Gibson, S W; Babcock, G F 1998. Dietary omega-3 and omega-9 fatty acids uniquely enhance allograft survival in cyclosporine-treated and donor-specific transfusion-treated rats. Transplantation, 65 10, 1304-9

King, K L; Moreira, K M; Babcock, G F; Wang, J; Campos, B; Kaetzel, M A; Dedman, J R 1998. Temporal inhibition of calmodulin in the nucleus. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1448 2, 245-53

Goggins, W C; Fisher, R A; Dattilo, J B; Cohen, D S; Tawes, J W; Dattilo, M P; Babcock, G F; Frede, S E; Wakely, P E; Posner, M P 1997. Analysis of functional renal allograft tolerance with single-dose rapamycin based induction immunosuppression. Transplantation, 63 2, 310-4

Hess, K L; Babcock, G F; Askew, D S; Cook-Mills, J M 1997. A novel flow cytometric method for quantifying phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Cytometry, 27 2, 145-52

Levy, A E; Alexander, J W; Babcock, G F 1997. A strategy for generating consistent long-term donor-specific tolerance to solid organ allografts. Transplant immunology, 5 2, 83-8

Rodeberg, D A; Bass, R C; Alexander, J W; Warden, G D; Babcock, G F 1997. Neutrophils from burn patients are unable to increase the expression of CD11b/CD18 in response to inflammatory stimuli. Journal of leukocyte biology, 61 5, 575-82

Rodeberg, D A; Morris, R E; Babcock, G F 1997. Azurophilic granules of human neutrophils contain CD14. Infection and immunity, 65 11, 4747-53

Swope, V B; Supp, A P; Cornelius, J R; Babcock, G F; Boyce, S T 1997. Regulation of pigmentation in cultured skin substitutes by cytometric sorting of melanocytes and keratinocytes. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 109 3, 289-95

Babcock, G F; Alexander, J W 1996. The effects of blood transfusion on cytokine production by TH1 and TH2 lymphocytes in the mouse. Transplantation, 61 3, 465-8

Frede, S E; Levy, A E; Alexander, J W; Babcock, G F 1996. An examination of tissue chimerism in the ACI to Lewis rat cardiac transplant model. Transplant immunology, 4 3, 227-31

Gennari, R; Alexander, J W; Boyce, S T; Lilly, N; Babcock, G F; Cornaggia, M 1996. Effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril on bacterial translocation after thermal injury and bacterial challenge. Shock (Augusta, Ga.), 6 2, 95-100

Kane, T D; Johnson, S R; Alexander, J W; Babcock, G F; Ogle, C K 1996. Detection of intestinal bacterial translocation using PCR. The Journal of surgical research, 63 1, 59-63

Peck, M D; Babcock, G F; Alexander, J W; Billiar, T; Ochoa, J 1995. High doses of dietary arginine during repletion impair weight gain and increase infectious mortality in protein-malnourished mice. The British journal of nutrition, 74 6, 787-95

Babcock, G F; Dawes, S M 1994. Immunophenotyping using fixed cells. Methods in cell biology, 41 , 81-93

De Stefano, J A; Foy, J M; Sullivan, D W; Dawes, S M; Cushion, M T; Babcock, G F; Sleight, R G; van Halbeek, H; Walzer, P D 1994. Fractionation of Pneumocystis carinii developmental stages by counterflow centrifugal elutriation and sequential filtrations. Parasitology research, 80 1, 1-9

Gennari, R; Alexander, J W; Eaves-Pyles, T; Babcock, G F 1994. Heparan sulfate increases survival during gut-derived sepsis by decreasing bacterial translocation and enhancing host defense. Shock (Augusta, Ga.), 2 4, 246-50

Solomkin, J S; Bass, R C; Bjornson, H S; Tindal, C J; Babcock, G F 1994. Alterations of neutrophil responses to tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-8 following human endotoxemia. Infection and immunity, 62 3, 943-7

Swope, V B; Sauder, D N; McKenzie, R C; Sramkoski, R M; Krug, K A; Babcock, G F; Nordlund, J J; Abdel-Malek, Z A 1994. Synthesis of interleukin-1 alpha and beta by normal human melanocytes. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 102 5, 749-53

Gianotti, L; Alexander, J W; Pyles, T; Fukushima, R; Babcock, G F 1993. Prostaglandin E1 analogues misoprostol and enisoprost decrease microbial translocation and modulate the immune response. Circulatory shock, 40 4, 243-9

Gianotti, L; Munda, R; Alexander, J W; Tchervenkov, J I; Babcock, G F 1993. Bacterial translocation: a potential source for infection in acute pancreatitis. Pancreas, 8 5, 551-8

Gianotti, L; Pyles, T; Alexander, J W; Fukushima, R; Babcock, G F 1993. Identification of the blood component responsible for increased susceptibility to gut-derived infection. Transfusion, 33 6, 458-65

White-Owen, C; Hartmann, S; Alexander, J W; Babcock, G F 1993. Reduced PMN beta 2 integrins after trauma: a possible role for colony-stimulating factors. Clinical and experimental immunology, 92 3, 477-81

Wolos, J A; Frondorf, K A; Babcock, G F; Stripp, S A; Bowlin, T L 1993. Immunomodulation by an inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase: inhibition of in vitro and in vivo allogeneic responses. Cellular immunology, 149 2, 402-8

Alexander, J W; Babcock, G F; First, M R; Davies, C B; Madden, R L; Munda, R; Penn, I; Fidler, J P; Cofer, B R; Stephens, G 1992. The induction of immunologic hyporesponsiveness by preoperative donor-specific transfusions and cyclosporine in human cadaveric transplants. A preliminary trial. Transplantation, 53 2, 423-7

De Stefano, J A; Sleight, R G; Babcock, G F; Sramkoski, R M; Walzer, P D 1992. Isolation of Pneumocystis carinii cysts by flow cytometry. Parasitology research, 78 3, 179-82

Gianotti, L; Pyles, T; Alexander, J W; Babcock, G F; Carey, M A 1992. Impact of blood transfusion and burn injury on microbial translocation and bacterial survival. Transfusion, 32 4, 312-7

White-Owen, C; Alexander, J W; Sramkoski, R M; Babcock, G F 1992. Rapid whole-blood microassay using flow cytometry for measuring neutrophil phagocytosis. Journal of clinical microbiology, 30 8, 2071-6

Alexander, J W; Gianotti, L; Pyles, T; Carey, M A; Babcock, G F 1991. Distribution and survival of Escherichia coli translocating from the intestine after thermal injury. Annals of surgery, 213 6, 558-66; discussion 5

Alexander, J W; Boyce, S T; Babcock, G F; Gianotti, L; Peck, M D; Dunn, D L; Pyles, T; Childress, C P; Ash, S K 1990. The process of microbial translocation. Annals of surgery, 212 4, 496-510; discussion

Amoscato, A A; Sramkoski, R M; Babcock, G F; Alexander, J W 1990. Neutral surface aminopeptidase activity of human tumor cell lines. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1041 3, 317-9

Babcock, G F; Alexander, J W; Warden, G D 1990. Flow cytometric analysis of neutrophil subsets in thermally injured patients developing infection. Clinical immunology and immunopathology, 54 1, 117-25

Fang, C H; Peck, M D; Alexander, J W; Babcock, G F; Warden, G D 1990. The effect of free radical scavengers on outcome after infection in burned mice. The Journal of trauma, 30 4, 453-6

Peck, M D; Alexander, J W; Ogle, C K; Babcock, G F 1990. The effect of dietary fatty acids on response to Pseudomonas infection in burned mice. The Journal of trauma, 30 4, 445-52

Amoscato, A A; Alexander, J W; Babcock, G F 1989. Surface aminopeptidase activity of human lymphocytes. I. Biochemical and biologic properties of intact cells. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 142 4, 1245-52

Perez, R V; Babcock, G F; Alexander, J W 1989. Immunoregulation of transfusion-induced immunosuppression with inhibitors of the arachidonic acid metabolism. Transplantation, 48 1, 85-7

Amoscato, A A; Balasubramaniam, A; Alexander, J W; Babcock, G F 1988. Degradation of thymopentin by human lymphocytes: evidence for aminopeptidase activity. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 955 2, 164-74

Babcock, G F 1988. Workshop on flow cytometry methodologies. Cytometry. Supplement : the journal of the Society for Analytical Cytology, 3 , 106-7

Babcock, G F; Smith, L A; Alexander, J W 1988. A comparison of single and multiple blood transfusions in the mixed lymphocyte response of rats. Transplantation proceedings, 20 6, 1213-6

Zhao, X F; Schroeder, T J; Alexander, J W; Miskell, P; Gonce, S J; Babcock, G F 1988. The prolongation of skin allograft survival by topical use of cyclosporine A. Transplantation proceedings, 20 2 Suppl 2, 670-3

Babcock, G F; Taylor, A F; Hynd, B A; Sramkoski, R M; Alexander, J W 1987. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subset phenotypes comparing normal children and adults. Diagnostic and clinical immunology, 5 4, 175-9

Bowlin, T L; McKown, B J; Babcock, G F; Sunkara, P S 1987. Intracellular polyamine biosynthesis is required for interleukin 2 responsiveness during lymphocyte mitogenesis. Cellular immunology, 106 2, 420-7

Lai, C S; Wesseler, T A; Alexander, J W; Babcock, G F 1987. Long-term survival of skin allografts in rats treated with topical cyclosporine. Transplantation, 44 1, 83-7

Banks, R A; Nishioka, K; Kazazi, F; Babcock, G F 1985. Effect of tuftsin on in vivo development of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced primary fibrosarcoma and Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 74 5, 1079-83

Schantz, S P; Romsdahl, M M; Babcock, G F; Nishioka, K; Goepfert, H 1985. The effect of surgery on natural killer cell activity in head and neck cancer patients: in vitro reversal of a postoperatively suppressed immunosurveillance system. The Laryngoscope, 95 5, 588-94

Lanier, L L; Phillips, J H; Warner, N L; Babcock, G F 1984. A human natural killer cell-associated antigen defined by monoclonal antibody anti-Leu (NKP-15): functional and two-color flow cytometry analysis. Journal of leukocyte biology, 35 1, 11-7

Nishioka, K; Amoscato, A A; Babcock, G F; Banks, R A; Phillips, J H 1984. Tuftsin: an immunomodulating peptide hormone and its clinical potential as a natural biological response modifier. Cancer investigation, 2 1, 39-49

Pollock, R E; Babcock, G F; Romsdahl, M M; Nishioka, K 1984. Surgical stress-mediated suppression of murine natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Cancer research, 44 9, 3888-91

Babcock, G F; Phillips, J H 1983. Human NK cells: light and electron microscopic characteristics. Survey of immunologic research, 2 1, 88-101

Lanier, L L; Engleman, E G; Gatenby, P; Babcock, G F; Warner, N L; Herzenberg, L A 1983. Correlation of functional properties of human lymphoid cell subsets and surface marker phenotypes using multiparameter analysis and flow cytometry. Immunological reviews, 74 , 143-60

Lanier, L L; Le, A M; Phillips, J H; Warner, N L; Babcock, G F 1983. Subpopulations of human natural killer cells defined by expression of the Leu-7 (HNK-1) and Leu-11 (NK-15) antigens. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 131 4, 1789-96

Phillips, J H; Nishioka, K; Babcock, G F 1983. Tuftsin-induced enhancement of murine and human natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 419 , 192-204

Nishioka, K; Babcock, G F; Phillips, J H; Noyes, R D 1981. Antitumor effect of tuftsin. Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 41 , 13-8

Lanier, L L; Babcock, G F; Raybourne, R B; Arnold, L W; Warner, N L; Haughton, G 1980. Mechanism of B cell lymphoma immunotherapy with passive xenogeneic anti-idiotype serum. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 125 4, 1730-6

Banks, R A; Babcock, G F; Whitmore, A C; Haughton, G 1979. Effect of immunologic intervention on in vivo murine Rous sarcoma virus tumorigenesis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 63 6, 1423-31

Lanier, L L; Babcock, G F; Lynes, M A; Haughton, G 1979. Antigen-induced murine B-cell lymphomas. III. Passive anti-idiotype serum therapy and its combined effect with chemotherapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 63 6, 1417-22

Babcock, G F; Lanier, L L; Lynes, M A; Haughton, G 1978. A simple method for the preparation of antisera specific for murine immunoglobulin heavy chains. Journal of immunological methods, 23 1-2, 1-6

Haughton, G; Lanier, L L; Babcock, G F 1978. The murine kappa light chain shift. Nature, 275 5676, 154-7

Lynes, M A; Lanier, L L; Babcock, G F; Wettstein, P J; Haughton, G 1978. Antigen-induced murine B cell lymphomas. I. Induction and characterization of CH1 and CH2. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 121 6, 2352-7

Whitmore, A C; Babcock, G F; Haughton, G 1978. Genetic control of susceptibility of mice to Rous sarcoma virus tumorigenesis. II. Segregation analysis of strain A.SW-associated resistance to primary tumor induction. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 121 1, 213-20

McCarthy, R E; Arnold, L W; Babcock, G F 1977. Dextran sulphate: an adjuvant for cell-mediated immune responses. Immunology, 32 6, 963-74

Healy D.;Enzweiler K.;Neely A.;Holder I.;Babcock G. 12-01-2004. Differential effects of amphotericin B and fluconazole on neutrophil CD11b expression Journal of Infectious Disease Pharmacotherapy, 6 4, 59-74

Babcock G.;Rodeberg D. 12-01-1996. Effects of heat shock on human neutrophil degranulation FASEB Journal, 10 6,

Sarangarajan R.;Zhao Y.;Babcock G.;Cornelius J.;Lynn Lamoreux M.;Boissy R.E. 10-21-2000. Mutant alleles at the brown locus encoding tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) affect proliferation Pigment Cell Research, 13 5, 337-344

Swope V.;Supp A.;Schwemberger S.;Babcock G.;Boyce S. 10-01-2006. Increased expression of integrins and decreased apoptosis correlate with increased melanocyte retent Pigment Cell Research, 19 5, 424-433

Barker D.;Smalara D.;Im S.;Abdel-Malek Z.;Dixon K.;Mitchell D.;Babcock G.;Medrano E. 09-15-1995. Comparison of the Responses of Human Melanocytes with Different Melanin Contents to Ultraviolet B Ir Cancer Research, 55 18, 4041-4046

Hayashi Y.;Call M.;Chikama T.;Liu H.;Carlson E.;Sun Y.;Pearlman E.;Funderburgh J.;Babcock G.;Liu C.;Ohashi Y.;Kao W. 09-01-2010. Lumican is required for neutrophil extravasation following corneal injury and wound healing Journal of Cell Science, 123 17, 2987-2995

Hayashi Y.;Call M.;Liu C.;Hayashi M.;Babcock G.;Ohashi Y.;Kao W. 09-01-2010. Monoallelic expression Of Krt12 gene during corneal-type epithelium differentiation Of limbal stem c Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 51 9, 4562-4568

Osterburg A.;Mumy K.;Babcock G. 08-29-2013. Antibacterial -Acinetobacter baumannii - Activity of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Tea in Health and Disease Prevention, , 1195-1206

Hauser J.;Kadekaro A.;Kavanagh R.;Wakamatsu K.;Terzieva S.;Schwemberger S.;Babcock G.;Rao M.;Ito S.;Abdel-Malek Z. 08-01-2006. Melanin content and MC1R function independently affect UVR-induced DNA damage in cultured human mela Pigment Cell Research, 19 4, 303-314

Abdel-Malek Z.A.;Kadekaro A.L.;Kavanagh R.J.;Todorovic A.;Koikov L.N.;McNulty J.C.;Jackson P.J.;Millhauser G.L.;Schwemberger S.;Babcock G.;Haskell-Luevano C.;Knittel J.J. 07-01-2006. Melanoma prevention strategy based on using tetrapeptide ?-MSH analogs that protect human melanocyte FASEB Journal, 20 9,

Greatens A.;Hakozaki T.;Koshoffer A.;Epstein H.;Schwemberger S.;Babcock G.;Bissett D.;Takiwaki H.;Arase S.;Wickett R.R.;Boissy R.E. 07-01-2005. Effective inhibition of melanosome transfer to keratinocytes by lectins and niacinamide is reversibl Experimental Dermatology, 14 7, 498-508

Kadekaro A.;Kavanagh R.;Kanto H.;Terzieva S.;Hauser J.;Kobayashi N.;Schwemberger S.;Cornelius J.;Babcock G.;Shertzer H.;Scott G.;Abdel-Malek Z. 05-15-2005. ?-melanocortin and endothelin-1 activate antiapoptotic pathways and reduce DNA damage in human melan Cancer Research, 65 10, 4292-4299

Abdala-Valencia H.;Earwood J.;Bansal S.;Jansen M.;Babcock G.;Garvy B.;Wills-Karp M.;Cook-Mills J. 05-01-2007. Nonhematopoietic NADPH oxidase regulation of lung eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness in exp American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 292 5,

Le Poole I.C.;Boissy R.E.;Sarancarajan R.;Chen J.;Forristal J.J.;Sheth P.;Westerhof W.;Babcock G.;Das P.K.;Saelinger C.B. 05-01-2000. PIG3V, an immortalized human vitiligo melanocyte cell line, expresses dilated endoplasmic reticulum In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Animal, 36 5, 309-319

O'Brien T.;Babcock G.;Cornelius J.;Dingeldein M.;Talaska G.;Warshawsky D.;Mitchell K. 05-01-2000. A comparison of apoptosis and necrosis induced by hepatotoxins in HepG2 cells Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 164 3, 280-290

Tichy E.;Liang L.;Deng L.;Tischfield J.;Schwemberger S.;Babcock G.;Stambrook P. 04-03-2011. Mismatch and base excision repair proficiency in murine embryonic stem cells DNA Repair, 10 4, 445-451

Weng D.;Zhang Y.;Hayashi Y.;Kuan C.;Liu C.;Babcock G.;Weng W.;Schwemberger S.;Kao W. 03-20-2008. Promiscuous recombination of LoxP alleles during gametogenesis in cornea Cre driver mice Molecular Vision, 14 , 562-571

Babcock G.;Meyer J. 03-20-1998. The effects of stress on neutrophil function receptor expression, and apoptosis FASEB Journal, 12 5,

Knauf J.;Ouyang B.;Knudsen E.;Fukasawa K.;Babcock G.;Fagin J. 02-17-2006. Oncogenic RAS induces accelerated transition through G<inf>2</inf>/M and promotes defect Journal of Biological Chemistry, 281 7, 3800-3809

Dugan A.;Schwemberger S.;Noel G.;Babcock G.;Ogle C.;Horseman N. 02-01-2007. Psychogenic stress prior to burn injury has differential effects on bone marrow and cytokine respons Experimental Biology and Medicine, 232 2, 253-261

Alexander J.W.;Valente J.F.;Greenberg N.A.;Custer D.A.;Ogle C.K.;Gibson S.;Babcock G. 02-01-1999. Dietary amino acids as new and novel agents to enhance allograft survival Nutrition, 15 2, 130-134

Swope V.;Alexander C.;Starner R.;Schwemberger S.;Babcock G.;Abdel-Malek Z. 01-01-2014. Significance of the melanocortin 1 receptor in the DNA damage response of human melanocytes to ultra Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research, 27 4, 601-610

Swope V.B.;Jameson J.A.;McFarland K.L.;Supp D.M.;Miller W.E.;McGraw D.W.;Patel M.A.;Nix M.A.;Millhauser G.L.;Babcock G.F.;Abdel-Malek Z.A. 01-01-2012. Defining MC1R regulation in human melanocytes by its agonist ?-melanocortin and antagonists agouti s Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 132 9, 2255-2262

Ebanks J.;Koshoffer A.;Wickett R.;Schwemberger S.;Babcock G.;Hakozaki T.;Boissy R. 01-01-2011. Epidermal keratinocytes from light vs. Dark skin exhibit differential degradation of melanosomes Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 131 6, 1226-1233

Kadekaro A.L.;Leachman S.;Kavanagh R.J.;Swope V.;Cassidy P.;Supp D.;Sartor M.;Schwemberger S.;Babcock G.;Wakamatsu K.;Ito S.;Koshoffer A.;Boissy R.E.;Manga P.;Sturm R.A.;Abdel-Malek Z.A. 01-01-2010. Melanocortin 1 receptor genotype: An important determinant of the damage response of melanocytes to FASEB Journal, 24 10, 3850-3860

Osterburg A.;Gardner J.;Hyon S.;Neely A.;Babcock G. 01-01-2009. Highly antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates are killed by the green tea po Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 15 4, 341-346

Healy D.;Silverman P.;Neely A.;Holder I.;Babcock G. 01-01-2002. Effect of antibiotics on polymorphonuclear neutrophil apoptosis Pharmacotherapy, 22 5, 578-585

Heinen C.;Goss K.;Cornelius J.;Babcock G.;Knudsen E.;Kowalik T.;Groden J. 01-01-2002. The APC tumor suppressor controls entry into S-phase through its ability to regulate the cyclin D/RB Gastroenterology, 123 3, 751-763

Alexander J.;Levy A.;Custer D.;Valente J.;Babcock G.;Ogle C.;Schroeder T. 01-01-1998. Arginine, fish oil, and donor-specific transfusions independently improve cardiac allograft survival Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 22 3, 152-155

Im S.;Moro O.;Peng F.;Medrano E.;Cornelius J.;Babcock G.;Nordlund J.;Abdel-Malek Z. 01-01-1998. Activation of the cyclic AMP pathway by ?-melanotropin mediates the response of human melanocytes to Cancer Research, 58 1, 47-54

Tada A.;Suzuki I.;Im S.;Davis M.;Cornelius J.;Babcock G.;Nordlund J.;Abdel-Malek Z. 01-01-1998. Endothelin-1 is a paracrine growth factor that modulates melanogenesis of human melanocytes and part Cell Growth and Differentiation, 9 7, 575-584

Nordlund J.;Csato M.;Babcock G.;Takei F. 01-01-1995. Low ICAM?1 expression in the epidermis of depigmenting C57BL/6J?mi<sup>vit</sup>/mi<s Experimental Dermatology, 4 1, 20-29

ABDEL?MALEK Z.;SWOPE V.;SMALARA D.;BABCOCK G.;DAWES S.;NORDLUND J. 01-01-1994. Analysis of the UV?Induced Melanogenesis and Growth Arrest of Human Melanocytes Pigment Cell Research, 7 5, 326-332

Wolos J.;Frondorf K.;Babcock G.;Stripp S.;Bowlin T. 01-01-1993. Immunomodulation by an inhibitor of s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase: Inhibition of in vitro and Cellular Immunology, 149 2, 402-408

Banks R.;Babcock G.;Nishioka K. 01-01-1988. Effect of oral administered or liposome-encapsulated tuftsin on survival of C57BL/6 mic inoculated w Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research, 7 1, 21-26

Perez R.;Heyd T.;Munda R.;Babcock G.;Alexander J. 01-01-1988. Induction of long-term rat cardiac allograft survival in rats with multiple donor specific transfusi Current Surgery, 45 1, 9-12

Lai C.;Babcock G.;Alexander J. 01-01-1986. Indefinite survival of rat skin allografts induced by topical cyclosporin A Surgical Forum, 37 , 603-604

Weiner D.B.;Watson S.R.;Babcock G.;Keller S.J. 01-01-1986. Expression of human T antigens in interspecies hybridomas Cellular Immunology, 100 1, 197-209

Lewis D.;Babcock G.;Templeton J. 01-01-1984. A rapid and sensitive flow cytometric method for measuring cell and antibody mediated cytotoxicity Federation Proceedings, 43 6,

Romsdahl M.;Babcock G.;Phillips J.;Nishioka K. 01-01-1981. The immunopotentiating effect of tuftsin on human natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research, Vol. 22 , 1086

Lanier L.;Babcock G.;Lynes M.;Haughton G. 01-01-1979. Curative passive immunotherapy of a murine B cell lymphoma with anti-idiotype serum (A-Id) Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research, Vol. 20 ,

Lanier L.;Babcock G.;Lynes M.;Haughton G. 01-01-1979. Anti-idiotype antiserum (A-Id) therapy and its synergistic effect with chemotherapy in the treatment Federation Proceedings, 38 3 II,

Lanier L.;Lynes M.;Babcock G. 01-01-1978. Immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy of a murine B cell lymphoma with a xenogeneic anti-idiotype antise Federation Proceedings, 37 6,

Sasamoto, Y; Alexander, J W; Babcock, G F . Prolonged survival of reconstituted skin grafts without immunosuppression. The Journal of burn care & rehabilitation, 11 3, 190-200