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Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry & Microbiology

Photo of James Stringer, Ph.D.

James Stringer, Ph.D.

Education/Credentials
  • AB: San Diego State University
  • Ph.D.: University of California, Irvine

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Peer Reviewed Publications

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Evdokimova, Viktoria; Gandhi, Manoj; Rayapureddi, Jayanagendra; Stringer, James R; Nikiforov, Yuri E 2012. Formation of carcinogenic chromosomal rearrangements in human thyroid cells after induction of double-strand DNA breaks by restriction endonucleases. Endocrine-related cancer, 19 3, 271-81

Gandhi, Manoj; Evdokimova, Viktoria N; T Cuenco, Karen; Nikiforova, Marina N; Kelly, Lindsey M; Stringer, James R; Bakkenist, Christopher J; Nikiforov, Yuri E 2012. Homologous chromosomes make contact at the sites of double-strand breaks in genes in somatic G0/G1-phase human cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109 24, 9454-9

Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2010. Stealth and opportunism: alternative lifestyles of species in the fungal genus Pneumocystis. Annual review of microbiology, 64 , 431-52

Brubaker, R; Redhead, S A; Stringer, J R; Keely, S P; Cushion, M T 2009. Misinformation about Pneumocystis. Clinical and experimental dermatology, 34 7, e426-7

Deitsch, Kirk W; Lukehart, Sheila A; Stringer, James R 2009. Common strategies for antigenic variation by bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens. Nature reviews. Microbiology, 7 7, 493-503

Gandhi, Manoj S; Stringer, James R; Nikiforova, Marina N; Medvedovic, Mario; Nikiforov, Yuri E 2009. Gene position within chromosome territories correlates with their involvement in distinct rearrangement types in thyroid cancer cells. Genes, chromosomes & cancer, 48 3, 222-8

Keely, Scott P; Stringer, James R 2009. Complexity of the MSG gene family of Pneumocystis carinii. BMC genomics, 10 , 367

Stringer, James R; Beard, Charles B; Miller, Robert F 2009. Spelling Pneumocystis jirovecii. Emerging infectious diseases, 15 3, 506

Fischer, Jared M; Stringer, James R 2008. Visualizing loss of heterozygosity in living mouse cells and tissues. Mutation research, 645 1-2, 1-8

Fischer, Jared M; Stringer, James R 2008. Mutation in aging mice occurs in diverse cell types that proliferate postmutation. Aging cell, 7 5, 667-80

Keely, Scott P; Linke, Michael J; Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2007. Pneumocystis murina MSG gene family and the structure of the locus associated with its transcription. Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B, 44 9, 905-19

Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Chabé, Magali; Moukhlis, Raya; Durand-Joly, Isabelle; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Stringer, James R; Cushion, Melanie; Noël, Christophe; de Hoog, G Sybren; Guillot, Jacques; Viscogliosi, Eric 2006. Pneumocystis oryctolagi sp. nov., an uncultured fungus causing pneumonia in rabbits at weaning: review of current knowledge, and description of a new taxon on genotypic, phylogenetic and phenotypic bases. FEMS microbiology reviews, 30 6, 853-71

Fischer, Jared M; Keely, Scott P; Stringer, James R 2006. Evolutionary rate of ribosomal DNA in Pneumocystis species is normal despite the extraordinarily low copy-number of rDNA genes. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S156-8

Fischer, Jared M; Robbins, Susan B; Kannamkumarath, Sasi S; Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Stringer, Saundra L; Talaska, Glenn; Caruso, Joseph A; Stambrook, Peter J; Stringer, James R 2006. Exposure of mice to arsenic and/or benzo[a]pyrene does not increase the frequency of Aprt-deficient cells recovered from explanted skin of Aprt heterozygous mice. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis, 47 5, 334-44

Gandhi, M; Medvedovic, M; Stringer, J R; Nikiforov, Y E 2006. Interphase chromosome folding determines spatial proximity of genes participating in carcinogenic RET/PTC rearrangements. Oncogene, 25 16, 2360-6

Larson, Jon S; Yin, Moying; Fischer, Jared M; Stringer, Saundra L; Stringer, James R 2006. Expression and loss of alleles in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts and stem cells carrying allelic fluorescent protein genes. BMC molecular biology, 7 , 36

Nkinin, Stephenson W; Keely, Scott P; Stringer, James R; Kaneshiro, Edna S 2006. The sequence of the erg11 gene in form 1 and form 6 of Pneumocystis carinii are identical. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S147-8

Caudill, Christy M; Zhu, Zhaowen; Ciampi, Raffaele; Stringer, James R; Nikiforov, Yuri E 2005. Dose-dependent generation of RET/PTC in human thyroid cells after in vitro exposure to gamma-radiation: a model of carcinogenic chromosomal rearrangement induced by ionizing radiation. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 90 4, 2364-9

Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2005. Has the name really been changed? It has for most researchers. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 41 12, 1756-8

Fischer, Jared M; Robbins, Susan B; Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Kannamkumarath, Sasi S; Stringer, Saundra L; Larson, Jon Scott; Caruso, Joseph A; Talaska, Glenn; Stambrook, Peter J; Stringer, James R 2005. Co-mutagenic activity of arsenic and benzo[a]pyrene in mouse skin. Mutation research, 588 1, 35-46

Keely, Scott P; Renauld, Hubert; Wakefield, Ann E; Cushion, Melanie T; Smulian, A George; Fosker, Nigel; Fraser, Audrey; Harris, David; Murphy, Lee; Price, Claire; Quail, Michael A; Seeger, Kathy; Sharp, Sarah; Tindal, Carolyn J; Warren, Tim; Zuiderwijk, Eduard; Barrell, Barclay G; Stringer, James R; Hall, Neil 2005. Gene arrays at Pneumocystis carinii telomeres. Genetics, 170 4, 1589-600

Puxeddu, Efisio; Zhao, Guisheng; Stringer, James R; Medvedovic, Mario; Moretti, Sonia; Fagin, James A 2005. Characterization of novel non-clonal intrachromosomal rearrangements between the H4 and PTEN genes (H4/PTEN) in human thyroid cell lines and papillary thyroid cancer specimens. Mutation research, 570 1, 17-32

Stringer, James R; Larson, Jon S; Fischer, Jared M; Medvedovic, Mario; Hersh, Megan N; Boivin, Gregory P; Stringer, Saundra L 2005. Modeling variation in tumors in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102 7, 2408-13

Ambrose, H E; Keely, S P; Aliouat, E M; Dei-Cas, E; Wakefield, A E; Miller, R F; Stringer, J R 2004. Expression and complexity of the PRT1 multigene family of Pneumocystis carinii. Microbiology (Reading, England), 150 Pt 2, 293-300

Keely, Scott P; Fischer, Jared M; Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2004. Phylogenetic identification of Pneumocystis murina sp. nov., a new species in laboratory mice. Microbiology (Reading, England), 150 Pt 5, 1153-65

Larson, Jon S; Stringer, Saundra L; Stringer, James R 2004. Impact of mismatch repair deficiency on genomic stability in the maternal germline and during early embryonic development. Mutation research, 556 1-2, 45-53

Schaffzin, Joshua K; Stringer, James R 2004. Expression of the Pneumocystis carinii major surface glycoprotein epitope is correlated with linkage of the cognate gene to the upstream conserved sequence locus. Microbiology (Reading, England), 150 Pt 3, 677-86

Stringer, James R; Larson, Jon S; Fischer, Jared M; Stringer, Saundra L 2004. Increased mutation in mice genetically predisposed to oxidative damage in the brain. Mutation research, 556 1-2, 127-34

Keely, Scott P; Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2003. Diversity at the locus associated with transcription of a variable surface antigen of Pneumocystis carinii as an index of population structure and dynamics in infected rats. Infection and immunity, 71 1, 47-60

Keely, Scott P; Fischer, Jared M; Stringer, James R 2003. Evolution and speciation of Pneumocystis. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 50 Suppl , 624-6

Keely, Scott P; Stringer, James R 2003. Sequence diversity of transcripts from Pneumocystis carinii gene families MSR and PRT1. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 50 Suppl , 627-8

Cervantes, Rachel B; Stringer, James R; Shao, Changshun; Tischfield, Jay A; Stambrook, Peter J 2002. Embryonic stem cells and somatic cells differ in mutation frequency and type. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99 6, 3586-90

Hersh, Megan N; Stambrook, Peter J; Stringer, James R 2002. Visualization of mosaicism in tissues of normal and mismatch-repair-deficient mice carrying a microsatellite-containing transgene. Mutation research, 505 1-2, 51-62

Kaneshiro, Edna S; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Basselin-Eiweida, Mireille; Stringer, James R; Keely, Scott P; Smulian, A George; Giner, José-Luis 2002. The Pneumocystis carinii drug target S-adenosyl-L-methionine:sterol C-24 methyl transferase has a unique substrate preference. Molecular microbiology, 44 4, 989-99

Stringer, James R 2002. Pneumocystis. International journal of medical microbiology : IJMM, 292 5-6, 391-404

Stringer, James R; Beard, Charles B; Miller, Robert F; Wakefield, Ann E 2002. A new name (Pneumocystis jiroveci) for Pneumocystis from humans. Emerging infectious diseases, 8 9, 891-6

Cushion, M T; Orr, S; Keely, S P; Stringer, J R 2001. Time between inoculations and karyotype forms of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. Carinii influence outcome of experimental coinfections in rats. Infection and immunity, 69 1, 97-107

Kaneshiro, E S; Rosenfeld, J A; Basselin, M; Bradshaw, S; Stringer, J R; Smulian, A G; Giner, J L 2001. Pneumocystis carinii erg6 gene: sequencing and expression of recombinant SAM:sterol methyltransferase in heterologous systems. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 144S-146S

Keely, S P; Wakefield, A E; Cushion, M T; Smulian, A G; Hall, N; Barrell, B G; Stringer, J R 2001. Detailed structure of Pneumocystis carinii chromosome ends. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 118S-120S

Stringer, J R; Cushion, M T; Wakefield, A E 2001. New nomenclature for the genus Pneumocystis. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 184S-189S

Stringer, J R; Keely, S P 2001. Genetics of surface antigen expression in Pneumocystis carinii. Infection and immunity, 69 2, 627-39

Nikiforova, M N; Stringer, J R; Blough, R; Medvedovic, M; Fagin, J A; Nikiforov, Y E 2000. Proximity of chromosomal loci that participate in radiation-induced rearrangements in human cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290 5489, 138-41

Schaffzin, J K; Stringer, J R 2000. The major surface glycoprotein expression sites of two special forms of rat Pneumocystis carinii differ in structure. The Journal of infectious diseases, 181 5, 1729-39

Schaffzin, J K; Garbe, T R; Stringer, J R 1999. Major surface glycoprotein genes from Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. ratti. Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B, 28 3, 214-26

Schaffzin, J K; Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R 1999. A new family of Pneumocystis carinii genes related to those encoding the major surface glycoprotein. Current genetics, 35 2, 134-43

Cao, J; DePrimo, S E; Hersh, M N; Stringer, J R 1998. In situ detection of frameshift mutations in mouse cells. Mutation research, 421 2, 163-78

DePrimo, S E; Cao, J; Hersh, M N; Stringer, J R 1998. Use of human placental alkaline phosphatase transgenes to detect somatic mutation in mice in situ. Methods (San Diego, Calif.), 16 1, 49-61

Linke, M J; Sunkin, S M; Andrews, R P; Stringer, J R; Walzer, P D 1998. Expression, structure, and location of epitopes of the major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Clinical and diagnostic laboratory immunology, 5 1, 50-7

Stringer, J R; Cushion, M T 1998. The genome of Pneumocystis carinii. FEMS immunology and medical microbiology, 22 1-2, 15-26

Sunkin, S M; Linke, M J; McCormack, F X; Walzer, P D; Stringer, J R 1998. Identification of a putative precursor to the major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii. Infection and immunity, 66 2, 741-6

Wakefield, A E; Stringer, J R; Tamburrini, E; Dei-Cas, E 1998. Genetics, metabolism and host specificity of Pneumocystis carinii. Medical mycology : official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, 36 Suppl 1 , 183-93

Baughman, R P; Keely, S P; Dohn, M N; Stringer, J R 1997. The use of genetic markers to characterize transmission of Pneumocystis carinii. AIDS patient care and STDs, 11 3, 131-8

Cao, J; DePrimo, S E; Stringer, J R 1997. Cell cycle dependence of radiation-induced homologous recombination in cultured monkey cells. Mutation research, 374 2, 233-43

Cushion, M T; Walzer, P D; Smulian, A G; Linke, M J; Ruffolo, J J; Kaneshiro, E S; Stringer, J R 1997. Terminology for the life cycle of Pneumocystis carinii. Infection and immunity, 65 10, 4365; author reply 4

Keely, S P; Stringer, J R 1997. Sequences of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis strains associated with recurrent pneumonia vary at multiple loci. Journal of clinical microbiology, 35 11, 2745-7

Smulian, A G; Keely, S P; Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R 1997. Genetic and antigenic variation in Pneumocystis carinii organisms: tools for examining the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection. The Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine, 130 5, 461-8

Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R 1997. Residence at the expression site is necessary and sufficient for the transcription of surface antigen genes of Pneumocystis carinii. Molecular microbiology, 25 1, 147-60

Wakefield, A E; Keely, S P; Stringer, J R; Christensen, C B; Ahrens, P; Peters, S E; Bille-Hansen, V; Henriksen, S A; Jorsal, S E; Settnes, O P 1997. Identification of porcine Pneumocystis carinii as a genetically distinct organism by DNA amplification. APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica, 105 4, 317-21

DePrimo, S E; Stambrook, P J; Stringer, J R 1996. Human placental alkaline phosphatase as a histochemical marker of gene expression in transgenic mice. Transgenic research, 5 6, 459-66

Keely, S P; Baughman, R P; Smulian, A G; Dohn, M N; Stringer, J R 1996. Source of Pneumocystis carinii in recurrent episodes of pneumonia in AIDS patients. AIDS (London, England), 10 8, 881-8

Kramer, P R; Stringer, J R; Sinden, R R 1996. Stability of an inverted repeat in a human fibrosarcoma cell. Nucleic acids research, 24 21, 4234-41

Ludwig, D L; Stringer, J R; Wight, D C; Doetschman, H C; Duffy, J J 1996. FLP-mediated site-specific recombination in microinjected murine zygotes. Transgenic research, 5 6, 385-95

Stringer, J R 1996. Pneumocystis carinii: what is it, exactly? Clinical microbiology reviews, 9 4, 489-98

Stringer, J R; Walzer, P D 1996. Molecular biology and epidemiology of Pneumocystis carinii infection in AIDS. AIDS (London, England), 10 6, 561-71

Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R 1996. Translocation of surface antigen genes to a unique telomeric expression site in Pneumocystis carinii. Molecular microbiology, 19 2, 283-95

Underwood, A P; Louis, E J; Borts, R H; Stringer, J R; Wakefield, A E 1996. Pneumocystis carinii telomere repeats are composed of TTAGGG and the subtelomeric sequence contains a gene encoding the major surface glycoprotein. Molecular microbiology, 19 2, 273-81

Keely, S P; Stringer, J R; Baughman, R P; Linke, M J; Walzer, P D; Smulian, A G 1995. Genetic variation among Pneumocystis carinii hominis isolates in recurrent pneumocystosis. The Journal of infectious diseases, 172 2, 595-8

Wada, M; Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R; Nakamura, Y 1995. Antigenic variation by positional control of major surface glycoprotein gene expression in Pneumocystis carinii. The Journal of infectious diseases, 171 6, 1563-8

Cushion, M T; Harmsen, A; Matsumoto, Y; Stringer, J R; Wakefield, A E; Yamada, M 1994. Recent advances in the biology of Pneumocystis carinii. Journal of medical and veterinary mycology : bi-monthly publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, 32 Suppl 1 , 217-28

Denko, N C; Giaccia, A J; Stringer, J R; Stambrook, P J 1994. The human Ha-ras oncogene induces genomic instability in murine fibroblasts within one cell cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 91 11, 5124-8

Garbe, T R; Stringer, J R 1994. Molecular characterization of clustered variants of genes encoding major surface antigens of human Pneumocystis carinii. Infection and immunity, 62 8, 3092-101

Linke, M J; Smulian, A G; Stringer, J R; Walzer, P D 1994. Characterization of multiple unique cDNAs encoding the major surface glycoprotein of rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii. Parasitology research, 80 6, 478-86

Ludwig, D L; Stringer, J R 1994. Spontaneous and induced homologous recombination between lacZ chromosomal direct repeats in CV-1 cells. Somatic cell and molecular genetics, 20 1, 11-25

Cushion, M T; Kaselis, M; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R 1993. Genetic stability and diversity of Pneumocystis carinii infecting rat colonies. Infection and immunity, 61 11, 4801-13

Cushion, M T; Zhang, J; Kaselis, M; Giuntoli, D; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R 1993. Evidence for two genetic variants of Pneumocystis carinii coinfecting laboratory rats. Journal of clinical microbiology, 31 5, 1217-23

Krishna, S; Cowan, G; Meade, J C; Wells, R A; Stringer, J R; Robson, K J 1993. A family of cation ATPase-like molecules from Plasmodium falciparum. The Journal of cell biology, 120 2, 385-98

Shaw-White, J R; Denko, N; Albers, L; Doetschman, T C; Stringer, J R 1993. Expression of the lacZ gene targeted to the HPRT locus in embryonic stem cells and their derivatives. Transgenic research, 2 1, 1-13

Smulian, A G; Theus, S A; Denko, N; Walzer, P D; Stringer, J R 1993. A 55 kDa antigen of Pneumocystis carinii: analysis of the cellular immune response and characterization of the gene. Molecular microbiology, 7 5, 745-53

Stringer, J R 1993. The identity of Pneumocystis carinii: not a single protozoan, but a diverse group of exotic fungi. Infectious agents and disease, 2 3, 109-17

Zhang, J; Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R 1993. Molecular characterization of a novel repetitive element from Pneumocystis carinii from rats. Journal of clinical microbiology, 31 2, 244-8

Zhang, J; Stringer, J R 1993. Cloning and characterization of an alpha-tubulin-encoding gene from rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii. Gene, 123 1, 137-41

Smulian, A G; Stringer, J R; Linke, M J; Walzer, P D 1992. Isolation and characterization of a recombinant antigen of Pneumocystis carinii. Infection and immunity, 60 3, 907-15

Stringer, J R; Edman, J C; Cushion, M T; Richards, F F; Watanabe, J 1992. The fungal nature of Pneumocystis. Journal of medical and veterinary mycology : bi-monthly publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, 30 Suppl 1 , 271-8

Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R; Walzer, P D 1991. Cellular and molecular biology of Pneumocystis carinii. International review of cytology, 131 , 59-107

Meade, J C; Coombs, G H; Mottram, J C; Steele, P E; Stringer, J R 1991. Conservation of cation-transporting ATPase genes in Leishmania. Molecular and biochemical parasitology, 45 1, 29-38

Stringer, S L; Hong, S T; Giuntoli, D; Stringer, J R 1991. Repeated DNA in Pneumocystis carinii. Journal of clinical microbiology, 29 6, 1194-201

Wilson, K; Collart, F R; Huberman, E; Stringer, J R; Ullman, B 1991. Amplification and molecular cloning of the IMP dehydrogenase gene of Leishmania donovani. The Journal of biological chemistry, 266 3, 1665-71

Cushion, M T; Hong, S T; Steele, P E; Stringer, S L; Walzer, P D; Stringer, J R 1990. Molecular biology of Pneumocystis carinii. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 616 , 415-20

Hong, S T; Steele, P E; Cushion, M T; Walzer, P D; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R 1990. Pneumocystis carinii karyotypes. Journal of clinical microbiology, 28 8, 1785-95

Meade, J C; Hudson, K M; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R 1989. A tandem pair of Leishmania donovani cation transporting ATPase genes encode isoforms that are differentially expressed. Molecular and biochemical parasitology, 33 1, 81-91

Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R; Blase, M A; Walzer, P D; Cushion, M T 1989. Pneumocystis carinii: sequence from ribosomal RNA implies a close relationship with fungi. Experimental parasitology, 68 4, 450-61

Meade, J C; Shaw, J; Lemaster, S; Gallagher, G; Stringer, J R 1987. Structure and expression of a tandem gene pair in Leishmania donovani that encodes a protein structurally homologous to eucaryotic cation-transporting ATPases. Molecular and cellular biology, 7 11, 3937-46

Murphy, K E; Stringer, J R 1986. RecA independent recombination of poly[d(GT)-d(CA)] in pBR322. Nucleic acids research, 14 18, 7325-40

Stringer, J R 1985. Recombination between poly[d(GT).d(CA)] sequences in simian virus 40-infected cultured cells. Molecular and cellular biology, 5 6, 1247-59

Stringer, J R 1985. Construction of a viable simian virus 40 variant that carries a poly[d(GT) . d(CA)] insertion. Journal of virology, 53 2, 698-701

Stringer, J R; Kuhn, R M; Newman, J L; Meade, J C 1985. Unequal homologous recombination between tandemly arranged sequences stably incorporated into cultured rat cells. Molecular and cellular biology, 5 10, 2613-22

Stringer, J R 1982. Mutant of simian virus 40 large T-antigen that is defective for viral DNA synthesis, but competent for transformation of cultured rat cells. Journal of virology, 42 3, 854-64

Stringer, J R 1982. DNA sequence homology and chromosomal deletion at a site of SV40 DNA integration. Nature, 296 5855, 363-6

Stringer, J R 1981. Integrated simian virus 40 DNA: nucleotide sequences at cell-virus recombinant junctions. Journal of virology, 38 2, 671-9

Anderson, K P; Stringer, J R; Holland, L E; Wagner, E K 1979. Isolation and localization of herpes simplex virus type 1 mRNA. Journal of virology, 30 3, 805-20

Holland, L E; Anderson, K P; Stringer, J R; Wagner, E K 1979. Isolation and localization of herpes simplex virus type 1 mRNA abundant before viral DNA synthesis. Journal of virology, 31 2, 447-62

Stringer, J R; Holland, L E; Wagner, E K 1978. Mapping early transcripts of herpes simplex virus type 1 by electron microscopy. Journal of virology, 27 1, 56-73

Moss, B; Gershowitz, A; Stringer, J R; Holland, L E; Wagner, E K 1977. 5'-Terminal and internal methylated nucleosides in herpes simplex virus type 1 mRNA. Journal of virology, 23 2, 234-9

Stringer, J R; Holland, L E; Swanstrom, R I; Pivo, K; Wagner, E K 1977. Quantitation of herpes simplex virus type 1 RNA in infected HeLa cells. Journal of virology, 21 3, 889-901

Beard, C B; Carter, J L; Keely, S P; Huang, L; Pieniazek, N J; Moura, I N; Roberts, J M; Hightower, A W; Bens, M S; Freeman, A R; Lee, S; Stringer, J R; Duchin, J S; del Rio, C; Rimland, D; Baughman, R P; Levy, D A; Dietz, V J; Simon, P; Navin, T R . Genetic variation in Pneumocystis carinii isolates from different geographic regions: implications for transmission. Emerging infectious diseases, 6 3, 265-72

Cushion, M T; Linke, M J; Collins, M; Keely, S P; Stringer, J R . The minimum number of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii organisms required to establish infections is very low. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 111S

Cushion, Melanie T; Keely, Scott P; Stringer, James R . Molecular and phenotypic description of Pneumocystis wakefieldiae sp. nov., a new species in rats. Mycologia, 96 3, 429-38

Giuntoli, D; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R . Extraordinarily low number of ribosomal RNA genes in P. carinii. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 88S

Keely, S P; Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R . Determination of the maximum frequency of genetic rearrangements associated with Pneumocystis carinii surface antigen variation. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 128S

Keely, S P; Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R . Stability of four genetic loci in Pneumocystis carinii sp. f. carinii. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 43 5, 49S

Keely, S P; Stringer, J R . Multi-locus genotype switching in Pneumocystis carinii sp. f. hominis: evidence for reinfection. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 43 5, 50S

Keely, S; Pai, H J; Baughman, R; Sidman, C; Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R; Stringer, S L . Pneumocystis species inferred from analysis of multiple genes. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 94S

Meade, J C; Stringer, J R . Cloning and characterization of an ATPase gene from Pneumocystis carinii which closely resembles fungal H+ ATPases. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 42 3, 298-307

Meade, J C; Stringer, J R . PCR amplification of DNA sequences from the transcription factor IID and cation transporting ATPase genes in Pneumocystis carinii. The Journal of protozoology, 38 6, 66S-68S

Nkinin, Stephenson W; Stringer, James R; Keely, Scott P; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Giner, José-Luis; Kaneshiro, Edna S . Pneumocystis carinii sterol 14?-demethylase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae erg11 knockout mutant: sterol biochemistry. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 58 4, 383-92

Redhead, Scott A; Cushion, Melanie T; Frenkel, Jacob K; Stringer, James R . Pneumocystis and Trypanosoma cruzi: nomenclature and typifications. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 1, 2-11

Schaffzin, J K; Stringer, J R . Direct correlation of genomic localization and surface expression of the major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 127S

Smulian, A G; Stringer, J R; Linke, M J; Walzer, P D . Expression cloning of Pneumocystis carinii antigens. The Journal of protozoology, 38 6, 8S-10S

Stringer, J R; Stringer, S L; Zhang, J; Baughman, R; Smulian, A G; Cushion, M T . Molecular genetic distinction of Pneumocystis carinii from rats and humans. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 40 6, 733-41

Stringer, J R; Wakefield, A E; Cushion, M T; Dei-Cas, E . Pneumocystis taxonomy and nomenclature: an update. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 44 6, 5S-6S

Stringer, James R . Antigenic variation in pneumocystis. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 54 1, 8-13

Stringer, S L; Garbe, T; Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R . Genes encoding antigenic surface glycoproteins in Pneumocystis from humans. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 40 6, 821-6

Stringer, S L; Hudson, K; Blase, M A; Walzer, P D; Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R . Sequence from ribosomal RNA of Pneumocystis carinii compared to those of four fungi suggests an ascomycetous affinity. The Journal of protozoology, 36 1, 14S-16S

Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R . Transcription factor genes from rat Pneumocystis carinii. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 42 1, 12-9

Sunkin, S M; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R . A tandem repeat of rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii genes encoding the major surface glycoprotein. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 3, 292-300