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Department of Internal Medicine

Infectious Diseases

Photo of  Stephen Kralovic, MD, MPH

Stephen Kralovic, MD, MPH

Professor of Clinical Medicine

Education/Credentials
  • Bachelor's Degree: John Carroll University
  • Master's Level Training: University of Akron
  • Medical Degree: Medical College of Ohio
  • Residency: Akron General Medical Center
  • Fellowship: University of Cincinnati
  • Master's Degree: Ohio State University

Board Certifications & Licenses
  • Board Certified Diplomate American Board of Internal Medicine, 1992
  • Board Certified Diplomate American Board of Internal Medicine, Certification in Infectious Diseases, 1994
Contact Information
  • Cincinnati Veteran Affairs Medical Center
  • 3200 Vine Street
  • Cincinnati, Ohio 45220
  • Office 513-558-4704
  • Fax 513-475-6415
  • Email stephen.kralovic@va.gov

Peer Reviewed Publications

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Clifton, Marla; Kralovic, Stephen M; Simbartl, Loretta A; Minor, Lisa; Hasselbeck, Rachael; Martin, Tina; Roselle, Gary A 2018. Achieving balance between implementing effective infection prevention and control practices and maintaining a home-like setting in U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs nursing homes. American journal of infection control, 46 11, 1307-1310

Krein, Sarah L; Greene, M Todd; King, Beth; Welsh, Deborah; Fowler, Karen E; Trautner, Barbara W; Ratz, David; Saint, Sanjay; Roselle, Gary; Clifton, Marla; Kralovic, Stephen M; Martin, Tina; Mody, Lona 2018. Assessing a National Collaborative Program To Prevent Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in a Veterans Health Administration Nursing Home Cohort. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 39 7, 820-825

Nelson, Richard E; Evans, Martin E; Simbartl, Loretta; Jones, Makoto; Samore, Matthew H; Kralovic, Stephen M; Roselle, Gary A; Rubin, Michael A 2018. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Pre- and Post-hospital Discharge Infection Risk. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, ,

Singh, Maninder B; Evans, Martin E; Simbartl, Loretta A; Kralovic, Stephen M; Roselle, Gary A 2018. Evaluating the Effect of a Clostridium difficile Infection Prevention Initiative in Veterans Health Administration Long-Term Care Facilities. Infection control and hospital epidemiology, 39 3, 343-345

Castellino, Laila M; Gamage, Shantini D; Hoffman, Patti V; Kralovic, Stephen M; Holodniy, Mark; Bernstein, Jack M; Roselle, Gary A 2017. Healthcare-associated Legionnaires' disease: Limitations of surveillance definitions and importance of epidemiologic investigation. Journal of infection prevention, 18 6, 307-310

Evans, Martin E; Kralovic, Stephen M; Simbartl, Loretta A; Jain, Rajiv; Roselle, Gary A 2017. Eight years of decreased methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus health care-associated infections associated with a Veterans Affairs prevention initiative. American journal of infection control, 45 1, 13-16

Gamage, Shantini D; Ambrose, Meredith; Kralovic, Stephen M; Roselle, Gary A 2016. Water Safety and Legionella in Health Care: Priorities, Policy, and Practice. Infectious disease clinics of North America, 30 3, 689-712

Goto, Michihiko; O'Shea, Amy M J; Livorsi, Daniel J; McDanel, Jennifer S; Jones, Makoto M; Richardson, Kelly K; Beck, Brice F; Alexander, Bruce; Evans, Martin E; Roselle, Gary A; Kralovic, Stephen M; Perencevich, Eli N 2016. The Effect of a Nationwide Infection Control Program Expansion on Hospital-Onset Gram-Negative Rod Bacteremia in 130 Veterans Health Administration Medical Centers: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 63 5, 642-650

Khanna, Suchin R; Kralovic, Stephen M; Prakash, Rajan 2016. Tuberculous Meningitis in an Immunocompetent Host: A Case Report. The American journal of case reports, 17 , 977-981

Gamage, Shantini D; Kralovic, Stephen M; Roselle, Gary A 2015. The Case for Routine Environmental Testing for Legionella Bacteria in Healthcare Facility Water Distribution Systems-Reconciling CDC Position and Guidance Regarding Risk. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 61 9, 1487-8

Balbale SN, Johnson S, Burns SP, Kralovic SM, Goldstein B, Gerding DN, Evans CT. 2014. “Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection in Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury/Disorder” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology , 35 5, 577-580

Evans ME, Kralovic SM, Simbartl LA, Freyberg RW, Obrosky DS, Roselle GA, Jain R. 2014. "Nationwide Reduction of Healthcare-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Veterans Affairs Long-Term Care Facilities" American Journal of Infection Control , 41 1, 60-61

Evans ME, Simbartl LA, Kralovic SM, Jain R, Roselle GA 2014. “Clostridium difficile Infections in Veterans Health Administration Acute Care Facilities” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology , 35 8, 1037-1042

Evans, Martin E; Kralovic, Stephen M; Simbartl, Loretta A; Freyberg, Ron W; Obrosky, D Scott; Roselle, Gary A; Jain, Rajiv 2014. Nationwide reduction of health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Veterans Affairs long-term care facilities. American journal of infection control, 42 1, 60-2

Gupta, Nishant; Kralovic, Stephen M; McGraw, Dennis 2014. Lemierre syndrome: not so forgotten! American Journal of Critical Care , 23 2, 176-9

Ramanathan W, Johnson S, Burns SP, Kralovic SM, Goldstein B, Smith B, Gerding DN, Evans CT. 2014. “Recurrence of Clostridium difficile Infection among Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury and Disorder” American Journal of Infection Control, 42 2, 168-173

Ramanathan, Swetha; Johnson, Stuart; Burns, Stephen P; Kralovic, Stephen M; Goldstein, Barry; Smith, Bridget; Gerding, Dale N; Evans, Charlesnika T 2014. Recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection among veterans with spinal cord injury and disorder. American journal of infection control, 42 2, 168-73

Smulian AG, Moore DM, Robertson JC, Kralovic SM. 2014. “A Phase I study demonstrates safety and tolerability of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the anal mucosa” HIV Clinical Trials , 15 1, 36-44

Evans ME, Kralovic SM, Simbartl LA, Freyberg RW, Obrosky DS, Roselle GA, Jain R. 2013. “Veterans Affairs Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prevention Initiative Associated with a Sustained Reduction in Transmissions and Healthcare-Associated Infections” American Journal of Infection Control , 41 11, 1093-5

Evans ME, Kralovic SM, Simbartl LA, Obrosky DS, Hammond MC, Goldstein B, Evans CT, Jain R, Roselle GA 2013. “Effects of Veterans Affairs Initiative to Prevent MRSA Healthcare-associated Infections in Spinal Cord Injury Units” American Journal of Infection Control , 41 5, 422-426

Gamage SD, Simbartl SA, Kralovic SM, Wallace KS, Roselle GA. 2013. “U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) SMEC-bio Reporting for Leadership Decision Support” Online Journal of Public Health Informatic, 5 1,

Kralovic SM, Evans, ME, Simbartl LA, Ambrose M, Jain R., Roselle GA. 2013. “Zeroing in on MRSA: Veterans Health Administration’s MRSA Prevention Initiative.” American Journal of Infection Control , 41 5, 456-458

Evans ME, Kralovic SM, Jain R. 2011. “Transmission of Resistant Bacteria in Intensive Care”, authors’ response to Letters to the Editor in the New England Journal of Medicine.” NEJM, 365, 761-766

Gamage S, Mohtashemi M, Simbartl L, Kralovic S, Wallace K, Roselle G. 2011. “Analysis of Dengue in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Patients in Puerto Rico” Emerging Health Threats Journal , 4 (Suppl 2), 11184

Jain, Rajiv; Kralovic, Stephen M; Evans, Martin E; Ambrose, Meredith; Simbartl, Loretta A; Obrosky, D Scott; Render, Marta L; Freyberg, Ron W; Jernigan, John A; Muder, Robert R; Miller, LaToya J; Roselle, Gary A 2011. Veterans Affairs initiative to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. New England journal of medicine, 364 15, 1419-30

Wallace KS, Roselle GA, Gamage S, Green D, Simbartl LA, Villeneuve M, Lacey J, Kralovic SM, Riojas JD. 2011. “The United States Department of Veterans Affairs Integrated Operations Center (VA IOC): Collaborations for Surveillance, Analysis and Prediction of Infectious Disease Threat Preparedness—Pilot Review of Dengue Occurrence” Emerging Health Threats Journal , 4 , s155

de Perio, Marie A; Tsevat, Joel; Roselle, Gary A; Kralovic, Stephen M; Eckman, Mark H 2009. Cost-effectiveness of interferon gamma release assays vs tuberculin skin tests in health care workers. Archives of internal medicine, 169 2, 179-87

Moosbrugger, Emily A; Adams, Brian B; Kralovic, Stephen M 2008. Cutaneous cryptococcosis in a patient on corticosteroid therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. International journal of dermatology, 47 6, 630-2

Kelly, A A; Danko, L H; Kralovic, S M; Simbartl, L A; Roselle, G A 2003. Legionella in the veterans healthcare system: report of an eight-year survey. Epidemiology and infection, 131 2, 835-9

Kralovic, Stephen M; Danko, Linda H; Simbartl, Loretta A; Roselle, Gary A 2003. Acute hepatitis B infection and hepatitis B surface antigen positivity reported in the Department of Veterans Affairs: occurrence in a population seeking medical assistance. Military medicine, 168 6, 493-8

Kralovic, Stephen M; Danko, Linda H; Roselle, Gary A 2002. Laboratory reporting of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in United States Department of Veterans Affairs facilities. Emerging infectious diseases, 8 4, 402-7

Roselle, Gary A; Danko, Linda H; Kralovic, Stephen M; Simbartl, Loretta A; Kizer, Kenneth W 2002. National Hepatitis C Surveillance Day in the Veterans Health Administration of the Department of Veterans Affairs. Military medicine, 167 9, 756-9

Roselle, G A; Danko, L H; Kralovic, S M; Simbartl, L A; Kizer, K W 2000. Tuberculosis in the veterans healthcare system: a six-year review and evaluation of programme effectiveness. Epidemiology and infection, 125 2, 315-23

Roselle, G A; Danko, L H; Kralovic, S M; Simbartl, L A; Hilley, J; Tryhus, P 1999. A six-year epidemiologic review of pneumonia in Department of Veterans Affairs facilities. Military medicine, 164 4, 293-7

Kralovic, S M; Rhodes, J C 1998. Utility of routine testing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for cryptococcal antigen. Journal of clinical microbiology, 36 10, 3088-9

al-Khafaji, B; Kralovic, S; Smith, R D 1997. Increased hepatic iron in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an autopsy study. Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc, 10 5, 474-80

Gilchrist, M J; Carman, R J; Kralovic, S M; Linnemann, C C 1995. Bacteremia due to a multicellular, spirally aggregated Clostridium strain. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 20 Suppl 2 , S233-6

Kralovic, S M; Hutchins, M G; Smulian, A G 1995. Pancreatic abscess due to Eikenella corrodens in association with severe ethanolism. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 20 1, 198-9

Kralovic, S M; Melin-Aldana, H; Smith, K K; Linnemann, C C 1995. Staphylococcus lugdunensis endocarditis after tooth extraction. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 20 3, 715-6

Kralovic, S M; Rhodes, J C 1995. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Dactylaria (human dactylariosis): report of a case with review of the literature. The Journal of infection, 31 2, 107-13

Smulian, A George; Moore, Diana M; Robertson, Jaime C; Kralovic, Stephen M . Phase I study demonstrates safety and tolerability of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the anal mucosa. HIV clinical trials, 15 1, 36-44