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Department of Internal Medicine

Digestive Diseases

Photo of  Kenneth Sherman, MD, PhD

Kenneth Sherman, MD, PhD

Professor of Digestive Diseases

Education/Credentials
  • Bachelor's Degree: Rutgers University
  • Doctoral Degree: Rutgers University
  • Medical Degree: George Washington University
  • Research Fellowship : American Red Cross Blood Research Center
  • Research Fellowship : American Red Cross Blood Research Center
  • Residency: Tripler Army Medical Center
  • Fellowship: Fitzsimons Army Medical Center

Board Certifications & Licenses
  • ACLS Provider
  • Ohio License
  • Colorado License
  • Hawaii License
  • New Jersey License
  • Diplomate American Board of Internal Medicine
  • Diplomate American Board of Internal Medicine in Gastroenterology
  • Diplomate National Board of Medical Examiners
Contact Information
  • Medical Sciences Building, 6th Floor
  • 231 Albert Sabin Way
  • PO Box 670595, ML 0595
  • Cincinnati, Ohio 45267
  • Office 513-558-7200
  • Fax 513-558-1744
  • Email shermake@ucmail.uc.edu

Peer Reviewed Publications

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Blackard, Jason T; Ma, Gang; Martin, Christina M; Rouster, Susan D; Shata, M Tarek; Sherman, Kenneth E 2011. HIV Variability in the Liver and Evidence of Possible Compartmentalization. AIDS research and human retroviruses, ,

Blackard, Jason T; Welge, Jeffrey A; Taylor, Lynn E; Mayer, Kenneth H; Klein, Robert S; Celentano, David D; Jamieson, Denise J; Gardner, Lytt; Sherman, Kenneth E 2011. HIV mono-infection is associated with FIB-4 - A noninvasive index of liver fibrosis - in women. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 52 5, 674-80

Eckman, Mark H; Kaiser, Tiffany E; Sherman, Kenneth E 2011. The Cost-effectiveness of Screening for Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in the United States. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 52 11, 1294-306

Taylor, Lynn E; Holubar, Marisa; Wu, Kunling; Bosch, Ronald J; Wyles, David L; Davis, John A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sherman, Kenneth E; Tashima, Karen T 2011. Incident hepatitis C virus infection among US HIV-infected men enrolled in clinical trials. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 52 6, 812-8

Blackard, Jason T; Ma, Gang; Limketkai, Berkeley N; Welge, Jeffrey A; Dryer, Peter D; Martin, Christina M; Hiasa, Yoichi; Taylor, Lynn E; Mayer, Kenneth H; Jamieson, Denise J; Sherman, Kenneth E 2010. Variability of the polymerase gene (NS5B) in hepatitis C virus-infected women. Journal of clinical microbiology, 48 11, 4256-9

Kemmer, Nyingi M; Sherman, Kenneth E 2010. Hepatitis C-related arthropathy: Diagnostic and treatment considerations. The Journal of musculoskeletal medicine, 27 9, 351-354

McHutchison, John; Goodman, Zachary; Patel, Keyur; Makhlouf, Hala; Rodriguez-Torres, Maribel; Shiffman, Mitchell; Rockey, Don; Husa, Petr; Chuang, Wan-Long; Levine, Robert; Jonas, Mark; Theodore, Dickens; Brigandi, Richard; Webster, Alison; Schultz, Margaret; Watson, Helen; Stancil, Britt; Gardner, Stephen 2010. Farglitazar lacks antifibrotic activity in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Gastroenterology, 138 4, 1365-73, 1373.e1-2

Schmeltzer, Paul; Sherman, Kenneth E 2010. Occult hepatitis B: clinical implications and treatment decisions. Digestive diseases and sciences, 55 12, 3328-35

Sherman, Kenneth E 2010. Thymosin alpha 1 for treatment of hepatitis C virus: promise and proof. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1194 , 136-40

Sherman, Kenneth E; Andersen, Janet W; Butt, Adeel A; Umbleja, Triin; Alston, Beverly; Koziel, Margaret J; Peters, Marion G; Sulkowski, Mark; Goodman, Zachary D; Chung, Raymond T 2010. Sustained Long-Term Antiviral Maintenance Therapy in HCV/HIV-Coinfected Patients (SLAM-C). Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), ,

Sherman, Kenneth E; Rouster, Susan D; Stanford, Sandra; Blackard, Jason T; Shire, Norah; Koziel, Margaret; Peters, Marion; Chung, Raymond T 2010. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) quasispecies complexity and selection in HCV/HIV-coinfected subjects treated with interferon-based regimens. The Journal of infectious diseases, 201 5, 712-9

Sherman, Kenneth E; Soriano, Vincent; Chung, Raymond T 2010. Human immunodeficiency virus and liver disease: conference proceedings. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 51 3, 1046-54

Sulkowski, Mark S; Shiffman, Mitchell L; Afdhal, Nezam H; Reddy, K Rajender; McCone, Jonathan; Lee, William M; Herrine, Steven K; Harrison, Stephen A; Poordad, F Fred; Koury, Kenneth; Deng, Weiping; Noviello, Stephanie; Pedicone, Lisa D; Brass, Clifford A; Albrecht, Janice K; McHutchison, John G 2010. Hepatitis C virus treatment-related anemia is associated with higher sustained virologic response rate. Gastroenterology, 139 5, 1602-11, 1611.e1

Atiq, Muslim; Shire, Norah J; Barrett, Anna; Rouster, Susan D; Sherman, Kenneth E; Shata, Mohamed T 2009. Hepatitis E virus antibodies in patients with chronic liver disease. Emerging infectious diseases, 15 3, 479-81

Blackard, Jason T; Rouster, Susan D; Nady, Soad; Galal, Gehan; Marzuuk, Naglaa; Rafaat, Marwaa M; Daef, Enas; El Din, Salwa Seif; Purcell, Robert H; Emerson, Suzanne U; Sherman, Kenneth E; Shata, M Tarek 2009. Genotypic characterization of symptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in Egypt. Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology, 46 2, 140-4

Dryer, Peter D; Limketkai, Berkeley N; Martin, Christina M; Ma, Gang; Sherman, Kenneth E; Taylor, Lynn E; Mayer, Kenneth H; Jamieson, Denise J; Blackard, Jason T 2009. Screening for hepatitis C virus non-nucleotide resistance mutations in treatment-naive women. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 64 5, 945-8

Gordon, Stuart C; Sherman, Kenneth E 2009. Treatment of HBV/HCV coinfection: releasing the enemy within. Gastroenterology, 136 2, 393-6

Martin, Christina M; Welge, Jeffrey A; Shire, Norah J; Shata, Mohamed T; Sherman, Kenneth E; Blackard, Jason T 2009. Cytokine expression during chronic versus occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV co-infected individuals. Cytokine, 47 3, 194-8

Poynard, Thierry; Colombo, Massimo; Bruix, Jordi; Schiff, Eugene; Terg, Ruben; Flamm, Steven; Moreno-Otero, Ricardo; Carrilho, Flair; Schmidt, Warren; Berg, Thomas; McGarrity, Thomas; Heathcote, E Jenny; Gonçales, Fernando; Diago, Moises; Craxi, Antonio; Silva, Marcelo; Bedossa, Pierre; Mukhopadhyay, Pabak; Griffel, Louis; Burroughs, Margaret; Brass, Clifford; Albrecht, Janice 2009. Peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin: effective in patients with hepatitis C who failed interferon alfa/ribavirin therapy. Gastroenterology, 136 5, 1618-28.e2

Sherman, Kenneth; Belkin, Igor M; Friedland, Kevin D; O'Reilly, John; Hyde, Kimberly 2009. Accelerated warming and emergent trends in fisheries biomass yields of the world's large marine ecosystems. Ambio, 38 4, 215-24

Shire, Norah J; Rao, Marepalli B; Succop, Paul; Buncher, C Ralph; Andersen, Janet A; Butt, Adeel A; Chung, Raymond T; Sherman, Kenneth E 2009. Improving noninvasive methods of assessing liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C virus/human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association, 7 4, 471-80, 480.e1-2

Blackard, Jason T; Shata, M Tarek; Shire, Norah J; Sherman, Kenneth E 2008. Acute hepatitis C virus infection: a chronic problem. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 47 1, 321-31

Kemmer, Nyingi; Sherman, Kenneth E 2008. What is the impact of HIV infection on survival after liver transplantation? Nature clinical practice. Gastroenterology & hepatology, 5 8, 426-7

Alatrakchi, Nadia; Graham, Camilla S; van der Vliet, Hans J J; Sherman, Kenneth E; Exley, Mark A; Koziel, Margaret James 2007. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8+ cells produce transforming growth factor beta that can suppress HCV-specific T-cell responses. Journal of virology, 81 11, 5882-92

Blackard, Jason T; Kang, Minhee; St Clair, J Benjamin; Lin, Wenyu; Kamegaya, Yoshitaka; Sherman, Kenneth E; Koziel, Margaret James; Peters, Marion G; Andersen, Janet; Chung, Raymond T 2007. Viral factors associated with cytokine expression during HCV/HIV co-infection. Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research, 27 4, 263-9

Blackard, Jason T; Sherman, Kenneth E 2007. Hepatitis C virus coinfection and superinfection. The Journal of infectious diseases, 195 4, 519-24

Sherman, Kenneth E 2007. New paradigms in the management of hepatitis C virus co-infections. Nature clinical practice. Gastroenterology & hepatology, 4 Suppl 1 , S10-6

Sherman, Kenneth E; Fleischer, Russell; Laessig, Katherine; Murray, Jeffrey; Tauber, William; Birnkrant, Debra 2007. Development of novel agents for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection: Summary of the FDA Antiviral Products Advisory Committee recommendations. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 46 6, 2014-20

Sherman, Kenneth E; Goodman, Zachary D; Sullivan, Sara T; Faris-Young, Sima 2007. Liver biopsy in cirrhotic patients. The American journal of gastroenterology, 102 4, 789-93

Sherman, Kenneth E; Peters, Marion; Koziel, Margaret James 2007. HIV and liver disease forum: conference proceedings. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 45 6, 1566-77

Shire, Norah J; Rouster, Susan D; Stanford, Sandra D; Blackard, Jason T; Martin, Christina M; Fichtenbaum, Carl J; Sherman, Kenneth E 2007. The prevalence and significance of occult hepatitis B virus in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), 44 3, 309-14

Atiq, Muslim; Neff, Guy W; Buell, Joseph; Kemmer, Nyingi; Rudich, Steven; Weber, Fred; Sherman, Kenneth 2006. Rhabdomylysis transference during liver transplantation. Transplantation, 81 9, 1359-60

Blackard, Jason T; Kang, Minhee; Sherman, Kenneth E; Koziel, Margaret James; Peters, Marion G; Chung, Raymond T 2006. Effects of HCV treatment on cytokine expression during HCV/HIV coinfection. Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research, 26 11, 834-8

Blackard, Jason T; Kemmer, Nyingi; Sherman, Kenneth E 2006. Extrahepatic replication of HCV: insights into clinical manifestations and biological consequences. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 44 1, 15-22

Graham, Camilla S; Wells, Annalee; Liu, Tun; Sherman, Kenneth E; Peters, Marion; Chung, Raymond T; Bhan, Atul K; Andersen, Janet; Koziel, Margaret James 2006. Relationships between cellular immune responses and treatment outcomes with interferon and ribavirin in HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infection. AIDS (London, England), 20 3, 345-51

Mandac, Jamie C; Chaudhry, Sonal; Sherman, Kenneth E; Tomer, Yaron 2006. The clinical and physiological spectrum of interferon-alpha induced thyroiditis: toward a new classification. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 43 4, 661-72

Mann, Elizabeth A; Stanford, Sandra; Sherman, Kenneth E 2006. Prevalence of mutations in hepatitis C virus core protein associated with alteration of NF-kappaB activation. Virus research, 121 1, 51-7

Mrus, Joseph M; Sherman, Kenneth E; Leonard, Anthony C; Sherman, Susan N; Mandell, Karen L; Tsevat, Joel 2006. Health values of patients coinfected with HIV/hepatitis C: are two viruses worse than one? Medical care, 44 2, 158-66

Peters, Marion G; Andersen, Janet; Lynch, Patrick; Liu, Tun; Alston-Smith, Beverly; Brosgart, Carol L; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Johnson, Victoria A; Pollard, Richard B; Rooney, James F; Sherman, Kenneth E; Swindells, Susan; Polsky, Bruce 2006. Randomized controlled study of tenofovir and adefovir in chronic hepatitis B virus and HIV infection: ACTG A5127. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 44 5, 1110-6

Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Blackard, Jason T; Zheng, Hui; Addo, Marylyn M; Lin, Wenyu; Robbins, Gregory K; Sherman, Kenneth E; Zdunek, Dietmar; Hess, Georg; Chung, Raymond T 2006. GB virus C (GBV-C) infection in hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV-coinfected patients receiving HCV treatment: importance of the GBV-C genotype. The Journal of infectious diseases, 194 4, 410-9

Shire, Norah J; Horn, Paul S; Rouster, Susan D; Stanford, Sandra; Eyster, M Elaine; Sherman, Kenneth E 2006. HCV kinetics, quasispecies, and clearance in treated HCV-infected and HCV/HIV-1-coinfected patients with hemophilia. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 44 5, 1146-57

Shire, Norah J; Welge, Jeffrey A; Sherman, Kenneth E 2006. Efficacy of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in HIV-infected patients: a hierarchical bayesian meta-analysis. Vaccine, 24 3, 272-9

Alatrakchi, Nadia; Graham, Camilla S; He, Qi; Sherman, Kenneth E; Koziel, Margaret James 2005. CD8+ cell responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the liver of persons with HCV-HIV coinfection versus HCV monoinfection. The Journal of infectious diseases, 191 5, 702-9

Chun, Sooyun; Sherman, Kenneth E 2005. Treatment of hepatitis C virus/HIV coinfection. Clinics in liver disease, 9 3, 525-33, ix

Glesby, Marshall J; Bassett, Roland; Alston-Smith, Beverly; Fichtenbaum, Carl; Jacobson, Elizabeth L; Brass, Clifford; Owens, Susan; Sulkowski, Mark; Race, Elizabeth M; Sherman, Kenneth E 2005. Pilot study of low-dose interleukin-2, pegylated interferon-alpha 2b, and ribavirin for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in patients with HIV infection. The Journal of infectious diseases, 191 5, 686-93

Graham, Camilla S; Wells, Annalee; Liu, Tun; Sherman, Kenneth E; Peters, Marion; Chung, Raymond T; Bhan, Atul K; Andersen, Janet; Koziel, Margaret James 2005. Antigen-specific immune responses and liver histology in HIV and hepatitis C coinfection. AIDS (London, England), 19 8, 767-73

Lienesch, Douglas; Morris, Robert; Metzger, Allan; Debuys, Paige; Sherman, Kenneth 2005. Absence of cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody in nonarthritic patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. The Journal of rheumatology, 32 3, 489-93

Qin, Hongxing; Shire, Norah J; Keenan, Erica D; Rouster, Susan D; Eyster, M Elaine; Goedert, James J; Koziel, Margaret James; Sherman, Kenneth E 2005. HCV quasispecies evolution: association with progression to end-stage liver disease in hemophiliacs infected with HCV or HCV/HIV. Blood, 105 2, 533-41

Sherman, Kenneth E 2005. Treatment of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association, 3 10 Suppl 2, S118-21

Sherman, Kenneth E; Shire, Norah J; Cernohous, Paul; Rouster, Susan D; Omachi, Janice H; Brun, Scott; Da Silva, Barbara 2005. Liver injury and changes in hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA load associated with protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy for treatment-naive HCV-HIV-coinfected patients: lopinavir-ritonavir versus nelfinavir. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 41 8, 1186-95

Sherman, Kenneth E; Shire, Norah J; Rouster, Susan D; Peters, Marion G; James Koziel, Margaret; Chung, Raymond T; Horn, Paul S 2005. Viral kinetics in hepatitis C or hepatitis C/human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Gastroenterology, 128 2, 313-27

Shire, Norah J; Sherman, Kenneth E 2005. Clinical trials of treatment for hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected patients: past, present, and future. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 41 Suppl 1 , S63-8

Shire, Norah J; Sherman, Kenneth E 2005. Management of HBV/HIV-coinfected Patients. Seminars in liver disease, 25 Suppl 1 , 48-57

Blackard, Jason T; Yang, Yijun; Bordoni, Paola; Sherman, Kenneth E; Chung, Raymond T 2004. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) diversity in HIV-HCV-coinfected subjects initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy. The Journal of infectious diseases, 189 8, 1472-81

Chung, Raymond T; Andersen, Janet; Volberding, Paul; Robbins, Gregory K; Liu, Tun; Sherman, Kenneth E; Peters, Marion G; Koziel, Margaret J; Bhan, Atul K; Alston, Beverly; Colquhoun, Dodi; Nevin, Tom; Harb, George; van der Horst, Charles 2004. Peginterferon Alfa-2a plus ribavirin versus interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected persons. The New England journal of medicine, 351 5, 451-9

Fleischer, Russell; Boxwell, Debra; Sherman, Kenneth E 2004. Nucleoside analogues and mitochondrial toxicity. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 38 8, e79-80

Graham, Camilla S; Curry, Michael; He, Qi; Afdhal, Nezam; Nunes, David; Fleming, Catherine; Horsburgh, Robert; Craven, Donald; Sherman, Kenneth E; Koziel, Margaret James 2004. Comparison of HCV-specific intrahepatic CD4+ T cells in HIV/HCV versus HCV. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 40 1, 125-32

Keenan, Erica D; Rouster, Susan D; Shire, Norah J; Horn, Paul S; Sherman, Kenneth E 2004. Complexity and diversity of hepatitis C virus RNA in african americans and whites: analysis of the envelope-coding domain. The Journal of infectious diseases, 190 3, 511-4

Morelli, Michael S; Rouster, Susan D; Giannella, Ralph A; Sherman, Kenneth E 2004. Clinical application of polymerase chain reaction to diagnose Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients with diarrhea. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association, 2 8, 669-74

Sherman, Kenneth E 2004. HCV and HIV: a tale of two viruses. Reviews in gastroenterological disorders, 4 Suppl 1 , S48-54

Sherman, Kenneth E; Sherman, Susan N; Chenier, Thomas; Tsevat, Joel 2004. Health values of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Archives of internal medicine, 164 21, 2377-82

Shire, Norah J; Rouster, Susan D; Rajicic, Natasa; Sherman, Kenneth E 2004. Occult hepatitis B in HIV-infected patients. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), 36 3, 869-75

Zucker, Stephen D; Horn, Paul S; Sherman, Kenneth E 2004. Serum bilirubin levels in the U.S. population: gender effect and inverse correlation with colorectal cancer. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.), 40 4, 827-35

Zucker, Stephen D; Sherman, Kenneth E 2004. Beyond interferon for hepatitis C: living in the present while hoping for the future. Gastroenterology, 126 5, 1487-8

Keiserman, Daniela R; Both, Cristiane T; Mattos, Angelo A; Remiao, Jose; Alexandre, Claudio O P; Sherman, Kenneth E 2003. Intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis C virus in patients with hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. The American journal of gastroenterology, 98 4, 878-83

Sherman, Kenneth E 2003. Implications of peginterferon use in special populations infected with HCV. Seminars in liver disease, 23 Suppl 1 , 47-52

Shiramizu, Bruce; Theodore, Dickens; Bassett, Roland; Coel, Marc; Sherman, Kenneth E; Glesby, Marshall J; Chow, Dominic; Alston, Beverly; Colquhoun, Dodi; Merigan, Thomas C; Reichman, Richard C; Berggren, Ruth; Burning, Wendy Jo; Brobst, Susan 2003. Correlation of single photon emission computed tomography parameters as a noninvasive alternative to liver biopsies in assessing liver involvement in the setting of HIV and hepatitis C virus coinfection: a multicenter trial of the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), 33 3, 329-35

Ajayi, Thomas; Sherman, Kenneth; Tang, Qisheng 2002. Support of marine sustainability science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297 5582, 772

Bleau, Brian L; Gostout, Christopher J; Sherman, Kenneth E; Shaw, Michael J; Harford, William V; Keate, Ray F; Bracy, Waldo P; Fleischer, David E 2002. Recurrent bleeding from peptic ulcer associated with adherent clot: a randomized study comparing endoscopic treatment with medical therapy. Gastrointestinal endoscopy, 56 1, 1-6

Chung, Raymond T; Evans, Scott R; Yang, Yijun; Theodore, Dickens; Valdez, Hernan; Clark, Rebecca; Shikuma, Cecilia; Nevin, Thomas; Sherman, Kenneth E 2002. Immune recovery is associated with persistent rise in hepatitis C virus RNA, infrequent liver test flares, and is not impaired by hepatitis C virus in co-infected subjects. AIDS (London, England), 16 14, 1915-23

Goedert, James J; Eyster, M Elaine; Lederman, Michael M; Mandalaki, Titica; De Moerloose, Philippe; White, Gilbert C; Angiolillo, Anne L; Luban, Naomi L C; Sherman, Kenneth E; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn; Preiss, Liliana; Leissinger, Cindy; Kessler, Craig M; Cohen, Alan R; DiMichele, Donna; Hilgartner, Margaret W; Aledort, Louis M; Kroner, Barbara L; Rosenberg, Philip S; Hatzakis, Angelos 2002. End-stage liver disease in persons with hemophilia and transfusion-associated infections. Blood, 100 5, 1584-9

Sherman, Kenneth E 2002. Diagnosis and management of the HCV/HIV-coinfected patient. AIDS clinical care, 14 5, 39-43, 48

Sherman, Kenneth E; Rouster, Susan D; Chung, Raymond T; Rajicic, Natasa 2002. Hepatitis C Virus prevalence among patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: a cross-sectional analysis of the US adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 34 6, 831-7

Sherman, Kenneth E; Rouster, Susan D; Horn, Paul S 2002. Comparison of methodologies for quantification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in patients coinfected with HCV and human immunodeficiency virus. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 35 4, 482-7