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Photo of James Stringer, Ph.D.

James Stringer, Ph.D.

Research Interests

Understanding the genetic consequences of exposure to novel chemicalsubstances has not kept pace with the rate of their production. Economicand temporal constraints limit the number of substances that can be tested, the range of genotoxic effects that can...

Education/Credentials
  • AB: San Diego State University
  • Ph.D.: University of California, Irvine
Contact Information

Peer Reviewed Publications

Evdokimova, Viktoria; Gandhi, Manoj; Rayapureddi, Jayanagendra; Stringer, James R; Nikiforov, Yuri E 2012. Formation of carcinogenic chromosomal rearrangements in human thyroid cells after induction of double-strand DNA breaks by restriction endonucleases. Endocrine-related cancer, 19 3, 271-81

Gandhi, Manoj; Evdokimova, Viktoria N; T Cuenco, Karen; Nikiforova, Marina N; Kelly, Lindsey M; Stringer, James R; Bakkenist, Christopher J; Nikiforov, Yuri E 2012. Homologous chromosomes make contact at the sites of double-strand breaks in genes in somatic G0/G1-phase human cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109 24, 9454-9

Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2010. Stealth and opportunism: alternative lifestyles of species in the fungal genus Pneumocystis. Annual review of microbiology, 64 , 431-52

Brubaker, R; Redhead, S A; Stringer, J R; Keely, S P; Cushion, M T 2009. Misinformation about Pneumocystis. Clinical and experimental dermatology, 34 7, e426-7

Deitsch, Kirk W; Lukehart, Sheila A; Stringer, James R 2009. Common strategies for antigenic variation by bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens. Nature reviews. Microbiology, 7 7, 493-503

Gandhi, Manoj S; Stringer, James R; Nikiforova, Marina N; Medvedovic, Mario; Nikiforov, Yuri E 2009. Gene position within chromosome territories correlates with their involvement in distinct rearrangement types in thyroid cancer cells. Genes, chromosomes & cancer, 48 3, 222-8

Keely, Scott P; Stringer, James R 2009. Complexity of the MSG gene family of Pneumocystis carinii. BMC genomics, 10 , 367

Stringer, James R; Beard, Charles B; Miller, Robert F 2009. Spelling Pneumocystis jirovecii. Emerging infectious diseases, 15 3, 506

Fischer, Jared M; Stringer, James R 2008. Visualizing loss of heterozygosity in living mouse cells and tissues. Mutation research, 645 1-2, 1-8

Fischer, Jared M; Stringer, James R 2008. Mutation in aging mice occurs in diverse cell types that proliferate postmutation. Aging cell, 7 5, 667-80

Keely, Scott P; Linke, Michael J; Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2007. Pneumocystis murina MSG gene family and the structure of the locus associated with its transcription. Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B, 44 9, 905-19

Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Chabé, Magali; Moukhlis, Raya; Durand-Joly, Isabelle; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Stringer, James R; Cushion, Melanie; Noël, Christophe; de Hoog, G Sybren; Guillot, Jacques; Viscogliosi, Eric 2006. Pneumocystis oryctolagi sp. nov., an uncultured fungus causing pneumonia in rabbits at weaning: review of current knowledge, and description of a new taxon on genotypic, phylogenetic and phenotypic bases. FEMS microbiology reviews, 30 6, 853-71

Fischer, Jared M; Keely, Scott P; Stringer, James R 2006. Evolutionary rate of ribosomal DNA in Pneumocystis species is normal despite the extraordinarily low copy-number of rDNA genes. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S156-8

Fischer, Jared M; Robbins, Susan B; Kannamkumarath, Sasi S; Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Stringer, Saundra L; Talaska, Glenn; Caruso, Joseph A; Stambrook, Peter J; Stringer, James R 2006. Exposure of mice to arsenic and/or benzo[a]pyrene does not increase the frequency of Aprt-deficient cells recovered from explanted skin of Aprt heterozygous mice. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis, 47 5, 334-44

Gandhi, M; Medvedovic, M; Stringer, J R; Nikiforov, Y E 2006. Interphase chromosome folding determines spatial proximity of genes participating in carcinogenic RET/PTC rearrangements. Oncogene, 25 16, 2360-6

Larson, Jon S; Yin, Moying; Fischer, Jared M; Stringer, Saundra L; Stringer, James R 2006. Expression and loss of alleles in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts and stem cells carrying allelic fluorescent protein genes. BMC molecular biology, 7 , 36

Nkinin, Stephenson W; Keely, Scott P; Stringer, James R; Kaneshiro, Edna S 2006. The sequence of the erg11 gene in form 1 and form 6 of Pneumocystis carinii are identical. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S147-8

Caudill, Christy M; Zhu, Zhaowen; Ciampi, Raffaele; Stringer, James R; Nikiforov, Yuri E 2005. Dose-dependent generation of RET/PTC in human thyroid cells after in vitro exposure to gamma-radiation: a model of carcinogenic chromosomal rearrangement induced by ionizing radiation. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 90 4, 2364-9

Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2005. Has the name really been changed? It has for most researchers. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 41 12, 1756-8

Fischer, Jared M; Robbins, Susan B; Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Kannamkumarath, Sasi S; Stringer, Saundra L; Larson, Jon Scott; Caruso, Joseph A; Talaska, Glenn; Stambrook, Peter J; Stringer, James R 2005. Co-mutagenic activity of arsenic and benzo[a]pyrene in mouse skin. Mutation research, 588 1, 35-46

Keely, Scott P; Renauld, Hubert; Wakefield, Ann E; Cushion, Melanie T; Smulian, A George; Fosker, Nigel; Fraser, Audrey; Harris, David; Murphy, Lee; Price, Claire; Quail, Michael A; Seeger, Kathy; Sharp, Sarah; Tindal, Carolyn J; Warren, Tim; Zuiderwijk, Eduard; Barrell, Barclay G; Stringer, James R; Hall, Neil 2005. Gene arrays at Pneumocystis carinii telomeres. Genetics, 170 4, 1589-600

Puxeddu, Efisio; Zhao, Guisheng; Stringer, James R; Medvedovic, Mario; Moretti, Sonia; Fagin, James A 2005. Characterization of novel non-clonal intrachromosomal rearrangements between the H4 and PTEN genes (H4/PTEN) in human thyroid cell lines and papillary thyroid cancer specimens. Mutation research, 570 1, 17-32

Stringer, James R; Larson, Jon S; Fischer, Jared M; Medvedovic, Mario; Hersh, Megan N; Boivin, Gregory P; Stringer, Saundra L 2005. Modeling variation in tumors in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102 7, 2408-13

Ambrose, H E; Keely, S P; Aliouat, E M; Dei-Cas, E; Wakefield, A E; Miller, R F; Stringer, J R 2004. Expression and complexity of the PRT1 multigene family of Pneumocystis carinii. Microbiology (Reading, England), 150 Pt 2, 293-300

Keely, Scott P; Fischer, Jared M; Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2004. Phylogenetic identification of Pneumocystis murina sp. nov., a new species in laboratory mice. Microbiology (Reading, England), 150 Pt 5, 1153-65

Larson, Jon S; Stringer, Saundra L; Stringer, James R 2004. Impact of mismatch repair deficiency on genomic stability in the maternal germline and during early embryonic development. Mutation research, 556 1-2, 45-53

Schaffzin, Joshua K; Stringer, James R 2004. Expression of the Pneumocystis carinii major surface glycoprotein epitope is correlated with linkage of the cognate gene to the upstream conserved sequence locus. Microbiology (Reading, England), 150 Pt 3, 677-86

Stringer, James R; Larson, Jon S; Fischer, Jared M; Stringer, Saundra L 2004. Increased mutation in mice genetically predisposed to oxidative damage in the brain. Mutation research, 556 1-2, 127-34

Keely, Scott P; Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2003. Diversity at the locus associated with transcription of a variable surface antigen of Pneumocystis carinii as an index of population structure and dynamics in infected rats. Infection and immunity, 71 1, 47-60

Keely, Scott P; Fischer, Jared M; Stringer, James R 2003. Evolution and speciation of Pneumocystis. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 50 Suppl , 624-6

Keely, Scott P; Stringer, James R 2003. Sequence diversity of transcripts from Pneumocystis carinii gene families MSR and PRT1. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 50 Suppl , 627-8

Cervantes, Rachel B; Stringer, James R; Shao, Changshun; Tischfield, Jay A; Stambrook, Peter J 2002. Embryonic stem cells and somatic cells differ in mutation frequency and type. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99 6, 3586-90

Hersh, Megan N; Stambrook, Peter J; Stringer, James R 2002. Visualization of mosaicism in tissues of normal and mismatch-repair-deficient mice carrying a microsatellite-containing transgene. Mutation research, 505 1-2, 51-62

Kaneshiro, Edna S; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Basselin-Eiweida, Mireille; Stringer, James R; Keely, Scott P; Smulian, A George; Giner, José-Luis 2002. The Pneumocystis carinii drug target S-adenosyl-L-methionine:sterol C-24 methyl transferase has a unique substrate preference. Molecular microbiology, 44 4, 989-99

Stringer, James R 2002. Pneumocystis. International journal of medical microbiology : IJMM, 292 5-6, 391-404

Stringer, James R; Beard, Charles B; Miller, Robert F; Wakefield, Ann E 2002. A new name (Pneumocystis jiroveci) for Pneumocystis from humans. Emerging infectious diseases, 8 9, 891-6

Cushion, M T; Orr, S; Keely, S P; Stringer, J R 2001. Time between inoculations and karyotype forms of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. Carinii influence outcome of experimental coinfections in rats. Infection and immunity, 69 1, 97-107

Kaneshiro, E S; Rosenfeld, J A; Basselin, M; Bradshaw, S; Stringer, J R; Smulian, A G; Giner, J L 2001. Pneumocystis carinii erg6 gene: sequencing and expression of recombinant SAM:sterol methyltransferase in heterologous systems. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 144S-146S

Keely, S P; Wakefield, A E; Cushion, M T; Smulian, A G; Hall, N; Barrell, B G; Stringer, J R 2001. Detailed structure of Pneumocystis carinii chromosome ends. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 118S-120S

Stringer, J R; Cushion, M T; Wakefield, A E 2001. New nomenclature for the genus Pneumocystis. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 184S-189S

Stringer, J R; Keely, S P 2001. Genetics of surface antigen expression in Pneumocystis carinii. Infection and immunity, 69 2, 627-39

Nikiforova, M N; Stringer, J R; Blough, R; Medvedovic, M; Fagin, J A; Nikiforov, Y E 2000. Proximity of chromosomal loci that participate in radiation-induced rearrangements in human cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290 5489, 138-41

Schaffzin, J K; Stringer, J R 2000. The major surface glycoprotein expression sites of two special forms of rat Pneumocystis carinii differ in structure. The Journal of infectious diseases, 181 5, 1729-39

Schaffzin, J K; Garbe, T R; Stringer, J R 1999. Major surface glycoprotein genes from Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. ratti. Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B, 28 3, 214-26

Schaffzin, J K; Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R 1999. A new family of Pneumocystis carinii genes related to those encoding the major surface glycoprotein. Current genetics, 35 2, 134-43

Cao, J; DePrimo, S E; Hersh, M N; Stringer, J R 1998. In situ detection of frameshift mutations in mouse cells. Mutation research, 421 2, 163-78

DePrimo, S E; Cao, J; Hersh, M N; Stringer, J R 1998. Use of human placental alkaline phosphatase transgenes to detect somatic mutation in mice in situ. Methods (San Diego, Calif.), 16 1, 49-61

Linke, M J; Sunkin, S M; Andrews, R P; Stringer, J R; Walzer, P D 1998. Expression, structure, and location of epitopes of the major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Clinical and diagnostic laboratory immunology, 5 1, 50-7

Stringer, J R; Cushion, M T 1998. The genome of Pneumocystis carinii. FEMS immunology and medical microbiology, 22 1-2, 15-26

Sunkin, S M; Linke, M J; McCormack, F X; Walzer, P D; Stringer, J R 1998. Identification of a putative precursor to the major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii. Infection and immunity, 66 2, 741-6

Wakefield, A E; Stringer, J R; Tamburrini, E; Dei-Cas, E 1998. Genetics, metabolism and host specificity of Pneumocystis carinii. Medical mycology : official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, 36 Suppl 1 , 183-93

Baughman, R P; Keely, S P; Dohn, M N; Stringer, J R 1997. The use of genetic markers to characterize transmission of Pneumocystis carinii. AIDS patient care and STDs, 11 3, 131-8

Cao, J; DePrimo, S E; Stringer, J R 1997. Cell cycle dependence of radiation-induced homologous recombination in cultured monkey cells. Mutation research, 374 2, 233-43

Cushion, M T; Walzer, P D; Smulian, A G; Linke, M J; Ruffolo, J J; Kaneshiro, E S; Stringer, J R 1997. Terminology for the life cycle of Pneumocystis carinii. Infection and immunity, 65 10, 4365; author reply 4

Keely, S P; Stringer, J R 1997. Sequences of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis strains associated with recurrent pneumonia vary at multiple loci. Journal of clinical microbiology, 35 11, 2745-7

Smulian, A G; Keely, S P; Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R 1997. Genetic and antigenic variation in Pneumocystis carinii organisms: tools for examining the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection. The Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine, 130 5, 461-8

Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R 1997. Residence at the expression site is necessary and sufficient for the transcription of surface antigen genes of Pneumocystis carinii. Molecular microbiology, 25 1, 147-60

Wakefield, A E; Keely, S P; Stringer, J R; Christensen, C B; Ahrens, P; Peters, S E; Bille-Hansen, V; Henriksen, S A; Jorsal, S E; Settnes, O P 1997. Identification of porcine Pneumocystis carinii as a genetically distinct organism by DNA amplification. APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica, 105 4, 317-21

DePrimo, S E; Stambrook, P J; Stringer, J R 1996. Human placental alkaline phosphatase as a histochemical marker of gene expression in transgenic mice. Transgenic research, 5 6, 459-66

Keely, S P; Baughman, R P; Smulian, A G; Dohn, M N; Stringer, J R 1996. Source of Pneumocystis carinii in recurrent episodes of pneumonia in AIDS patients. AIDS (London, England), 10 8, 881-8

Kramer, P R; Stringer, J R; Sinden, R R 1996. Stability of an inverted repeat in a human fibrosarcoma cell. Nucleic acids research, 24 21, 4234-41

Ludwig, D L; Stringer, J R; Wight, D C; Doetschman, H C; Duffy, J J 1996. FLP-mediated site-specific recombination in microinjected murine zygotes. Transgenic research, 5 6, 385-95

Stringer, J R 1996. Pneumocystis carinii: what is it, exactly? Clinical microbiology reviews, 9 4, 489-98

Stringer, J R; Walzer, P D 1996. Molecular biology and epidemiology of Pneumocystis carinii infection in AIDS. AIDS (London, England), 10 6, 561-71

Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R 1996. Translocation of surface antigen genes to a unique telomeric expression site in Pneumocystis carinii. Molecular microbiology, 19 2, 283-95

Underwood, A P; Louis, E J; Borts, R H; Stringer, J R; Wakefield, A E 1996. Pneumocystis carinii telomere repeats are composed of TTAGGG and the subtelomeric sequence contains a gene encoding the major surface glycoprotein. Molecular microbiology, 19 2, 273-81

Keely, S P; Stringer, J R; Baughman, R P; Linke, M J; Walzer, P D; Smulian, A G 1995. Genetic variation among Pneumocystis carinii hominis isolates in recurrent pneumocystosis. The Journal of infectious diseases, 172 2, 595-8

Wada, M; Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R; Nakamura, Y 1995. Antigenic variation by positional control of major surface glycoprotein gene expression in Pneumocystis carinii. The Journal of infectious diseases, 171 6, 1563-8

Cushion, M T; Harmsen, A; Matsumoto, Y; Stringer, J R; Wakefield, A E; Yamada, M 1994. Recent advances in the biology of Pneumocystis carinii. Journal of medical and veterinary mycology : bi-monthly publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, 32 Suppl 1 , 217-28

Denko, N C; Giaccia, A J; Stringer, J R; Stambrook, P J 1994. The human Ha-ras oncogene induces genomic instability in murine fibroblasts within one cell cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 91 11, 5124-8

Garbe, T R; Stringer, J R 1994. Molecular characterization of clustered variants of genes encoding major surface antigens of human Pneumocystis carinii. Infection and immunity, 62 8, 3092-101

Linke, M J; Smulian, A G; Stringer, J R; Walzer, P D 1994. Characterization of multiple unique cDNAs encoding the major surface glycoprotein of rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii. Parasitology research, 80 6, 478-86

Ludwig, D L; Stringer, J R 1994. Spontaneous and induced homologous recombination between lacZ chromosomal direct repeats in CV-1 cells. Somatic cell and molecular genetics, 20 1, 11-25

Cushion, M T; Kaselis, M; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R 1993. Genetic stability and diversity of Pneumocystis carinii infecting rat colonies. Infection and immunity, 61 11, 4801-13

Cushion, M T; Zhang, J; Kaselis, M; Giuntoli, D; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R 1993. Evidence for two genetic variants of Pneumocystis carinii coinfecting laboratory rats. Journal of clinical microbiology, 31 5, 1217-23

Krishna, S; Cowan, G; Meade, J C; Wells, R A; Stringer, J R; Robson, K J 1993. A family of cation ATPase-like molecules from Plasmodium falciparum. The Journal of cell biology, 120 2, 385-98

Shaw-White, J R; Denko, N; Albers, L; Doetschman, T C; Stringer, J R 1993. Expression of the lacZ gene targeted to the HPRT locus in embryonic stem cells and their derivatives. Transgenic research, 2 1, 1-13

Smulian, A G; Theus, S A; Denko, N; Walzer, P D; Stringer, J R 1993. A 55 kDa antigen of Pneumocystis carinii: analysis of the cellular immune response and characterization of the gene. Molecular microbiology, 7 5, 745-53

Stringer, J R 1993. The identity of Pneumocystis carinii: not a single protozoan, but a diverse group of exotic fungi. Infectious agents and disease, 2 3, 109-17

Zhang, J; Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R 1993. Molecular characterization of a novel repetitive element from Pneumocystis carinii from rats. Journal of clinical microbiology, 31 2, 244-8

Zhang, J; Stringer, J R 1993. Cloning and characterization of an alpha-tubulin-encoding gene from rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii. Gene, 123 1, 137-41

Smulian, A G; Stringer, J R; Linke, M J; Walzer, P D 1992. Isolation and characterization of a recombinant antigen of Pneumocystis carinii. Infection and immunity, 60 3, 907-15

Stringer, J R; Edman, J C; Cushion, M T; Richards, F F; Watanabe, J 1992. The fungal nature of Pneumocystis. Journal of medical and veterinary mycology : bi-monthly publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, 30 Suppl 1 , 271-8

Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R; Walzer, P D 1991. Cellular and molecular biology of Pneumocystis carinii. International review of cytology, 131 , 59-107

Meade, J C; Coombs, G H; Mottram, J C; Steele, P E; Stringer, J R 1991. Conservation of cation-transporting ATPase genes in Leishmania. Molecular and biochemical parasitology, 45 1, 29-38

Stringer, S L; Hong, S T; Giuntoli, D; Stringer, J R 1991. Repeated DNA in Pneumocystis carinii. Journal of clinical microbiology, 29 6, 1194-201

Wilson, K; Collart, F R; Huberman, E; Stringer, J R; Ullman, B 1991. Amplification and molecular cloning of the IMP dehydrogenase gene of Leishmania donovani. The Journal of biological chemistry, 266 3, 1665-71

Cushion, M T; Hong, S T; Steele, P E; Stringer, S L; Walzer, P D; Stringer, J R 1990. Molecular biology of Pneumocystis carinii. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 616 , 415-20

Hong, S T; Steele, P E; Cushion, M T; Walzer, P D; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R 1990. Pneumocystis carinii karyotypes. Journal of clinical microbiology, 28 8, 1785-95

Meade, J C; Hudson, K M; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R 1989. A tandem pair of Leishmania donovani cation transporting ATPase genes encode isoforms that are differentially expressed. Molecular and biochemical parasitology, 33 1, 81-91

Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R; Blase, M A; Walzer, P D; Cushion, M T 1989. Pneumocystis carinii: sequence from ribosomal RNA implies a close relationship with fungi. Experimental parasitology, 68 4, 450-61

Meade, J C; Shaw, J; Lemaster, S; Gallagher, G; Stringer, J R 1987. Structure and expression of a tandem gene pair in Leishmania donovani that encodes a protein structurally homologous to eucaryotic cation-transporting ATPases. Molecular and cellular biology, 7 11, 3937-46

Murphy, K E; Stringer, J R 1986. RecA independent recombination of poly[d(GT)-d(CA)] in pBR322. Nucleic acids research, 14 18, 7325-40

Stringer, J R 1985. Recombination between poly[d(GT).d(CA)] sequences in simian virus 40-infected cultured cells. Molecular and cellular biology, 5 6, 1247-59

Stringer, J R 1985. Construction of a viable simian virus 40 variant that carries a poly[d(GT) . d(CA)] insertion. Journal of virology, 53 2, 698-701

Stringer, J R; Kuhn, R M; Newman, J L; Meade, J C 1985. Unequal homologous recombination between tandemly arranged sequences stably incorporated into cultured rat cells. Molecular and cellular biology, 5 10, 2613-22

Stringer, J R 1982. Mutant of simian virus 40 large T-antigen that is defective for viral DNA synthesis, but competent for transformation of cultured rat cells. Journal of virology, 42 3, 854-64

Stringer, J R 1982. DNA sequence homology and chromosomal deletion at a site of SV40 DNA integration. Nature, 296 5855, 363-6

Stringer, J R 1981. Integrated simian virus 40 DNA: nucleotide sequences at cell-virus recombinant junctions. Journal of virology, 38 2, 671-9

Anderson, K P; Stringer, J R; Holland, L E; Wagner, E K 1979. Isolation and localization of herpes simplex virus type 1 mRNA. Journal of virology, 30 3, 805-20

Holland, L E; Anderson, K P; Stringer, J R; Wagner, E K 1979. Isolation and localization of herpes simplex virus type 1 mRNA abundant before viral DNA synthesis. Journal of virology, 31 2, 447-62

Stringer, J R; Holland, L E; Wagner, E K 1978. Mapping early transcripts of herpes simplex virus type 1 by electron microscopy. Journal of virology, 27 1, 56-73

Moss, B; Gershowitz, A; Stringer, J R; Holland, L E; Wagner, E K 1977. 5'-Terminal and internal methylated nucleosides in herpes simplex virus type 1 mRNA. Journal of virology, 23 2, 234-9

Stringer, J R; Holland, L E; Swanstrom, R I; Pivo, K; Wagner, E K 1977. Quantitation of herpes simplex virus type 1 RNA in infected HeLa cells. Journal of virology, 21 3, 889-901

Beard, C B; Carter, J L; Keely, S P; Huang, L; Pieniazek, N J; Moura, I N; Roberts, J M; Hightower, A W; Bens, M S; Freeman, A R; Lee, S; Stringer, J R; Duchin, J S; del Rio, C; Rimland, D; Baughman, R P; Levy, D A; Dietz, V J; Simon, P; Navin, T R . Genetic variation in Pneumocystis carinii isolates from different geographic regions: implications for transmission. Emerging infectious diseases, 6 3, 265-72

Cushion, M T; Linke, M J; Collins, M; Keely, S P; Stringer, J R . The minimum number of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii organisms required to establish infections is very low. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 111S

Cushion, Melanie T; Keely, Scott P; Stringer, James R . Molecular and phenotypic description of Pneumocystis wakefieldiae sp. nov., a new species in rats. Mycologia, 96 3, 429-38

Giuntoli, D; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R . Extraordinarily low number of ribosomal RNA genes in P. carinii. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 88S

Keely, S P; Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R . Determination of the maximum frequency of genetic rearrangements associated with Pneumocystis carinii surface antigen variation. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 128S

Keely, S P; Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R . Stability of four genetic loci in Pneumocystis carinii sp. f. carinii. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 43 5, 49S

Keely, S P; Stringer, J R . Multi-locus genotype switching in Pneumocystis carinii sp. f. hominis: evidence for reinfection. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 43 5, 50S

Keely, S; Pai, H J; Baughman, R; Sidman, C; Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R; Stringer, S L . Pneumocystis species inferred from analysis of multiple genes. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 94S

Meade, J C; Stringer, J R . Cloning and characterization of an ATPase gene from Pneumocystis carinii which closely resembles fungal H+ ATPases. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 42 3, 298-307

Meade, J C; Stringer, J R . PCR amplification of DNA sequences from the transcription factor IID and cation transporting ATPase genes in Pneumocystis carinii. The Journal of protozoology, 38 6, 66S-68S

Nkinin, Stephenson W; Stringer, James R; Keely, Scott P; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Giner, José-Luis; Kaneshiro, Edna S . Pneumocystis carinii sterol 14?-demethylase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae erg11 knockout mutant: sterol biochemistry. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 58 4, 383-92

Redhead, Scott A; Cushion, Melanie T; Frenkel, Jacob K; Stringer, James R . Pneumocystis and Trypanosoma cruzi: nomenclature and typifications. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 1, 2-11

Schaffzin, J K; Stringer, J R . Direct correlation of genomic localization and surface expression of the major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 127S

Smulian, A G; Stringer, J R; Linke, M J; Walzer, P D . Expression cloning of Pneumocystis carinii antigens. The Journal of protozoology, 38 6, 8S-10S

Stringer, J R; Stringer, S L; Zhang, J; Baughman, R; Smulian, A G; Cushion, M T . Molecular genetic distinction of Pneumocystis carinii from rats and humans. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 40 6, 733-41

Stringer, J R; Wakefield, A E; Cushion, M T; Dei-Cas, E . Pneumocystis taxonomy and nomenclature: an update. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 44 6, 5S-6S

Stringer, James R . Antigenic variation in pneumocystis. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 54 1, 8-13

Stringer, S L; Garbe, T; Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R . Genes encoding antigenic surface glycoproteins in Pneumocystis from humans. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 40 6, 821-6

Stringer, S L; Hudson, K; Blase, M A; Walzer, P D; Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R . Sequence from ribosomal RNA of Pneumocystis carinii compared to those of four fungi suggests an ascomycetous affinity. The Journal of protozoology, 36 1, 14S-16S

Sunkin, S M; Stringer, J R . Transcription factor genes from rat Pneumocystis carinii. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 42 1, 12-9

Sunkin, S M; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R . A tandem repeat of rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii genes encoding the major surface glycoprotein. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 3, 292-300

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