The research interest of my laboratory is focused on understanding the cellular pharmacology of pain inhibitory systems within the CNS. At the whole animal level, we use behavioral techniques to determine how stimulus induced analgesia is produced and measure its time course. We use single unit recording techniques, micropressure injection of drugs and iontophoretic procedures to determine the role of neurotransmitters, in particular neuropeptides, in the function of the spinal cord dorsal horn, midbrain periaqueductal gray and hypothalamic nuclei. In order to study synaptic physiology and pharmacology of spinal cord and midbrain, we use patch clamp procedures and slice preparation to record from neurons in these areas. Finally, we use patch clamp procedures and long term culture of spinal cord to study the pharmacology of the spinal cord at single channel level.