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Department of

Dermatology

Photo of  Zalfa Abdel-Malek, PhD

Zalfa Abdel-Malek, PhD

Professor

Education/Credentials
  • Bachelor's Degree: American University of Beirut
  • Master's Degree: University of Arizona
  • Doctoral Degree: University of Arizona
  • Post Doctoral : University of Cincinnati

Research/Clinical Interests

My research is focused on investigating the function of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), its agonists a-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a-MSH) and ACTH, and antagonists agouti signaling protein and human ß-defensin 3 in regulating cutaneous pigmentation and the response to UV radiation. We were among the first to demonstrate that human melanocytes express functional MC1R and that activation of this receptor is critical for the melanogenic (i.e. tanning response) to UV. Importantly, we discovered that the activated MC1R, known classically to be the main regulator of the synthesis of the dark brown pigment eumelanin, is also important for enhancing the repair of UV-induced DNA photoproducts and reducing the extent of oxidative DNA damage. These effects are expected to maintain genomic stability of melanocytes and prevent their malignant transformation to melanoma. The MC1R is a highly polymorphic gene, and a few of its allelic variants, namely R151C, R160W and D294H are strongly associated with red hair phenotype, poor tanning ability, and increased melanoma risk. I have established primary melanocyte cultures from donors expressing one or two of these variants, and found that the former resulted in partial, while the latter resulted in complete loss of function of the MC1R, which compromised the ability of melanocytes to repair UV-induced DNA damage and counteract oxidative stress. Our basic research on the MC1R and its agonists, which has been ongoing for over sixteen years, have led us to move our findings from the bench to the bedside. We have succeeded in developing small peptide analogs of a-MSH that can potentially be used as topical agent for melanoma prevention. Currently we have tetrapeptide analogs that are more potent the a-MSH, as well as active tripeptide analogs, all of which mimic a-MSH in modulating the UV response of cultures melanocytes. These analogs have the unique feature of being highly selective for the MC1R. Our preliminary data show that the analogs so far tested in diffusion assays can diffuse through the skin and their concentrations in the skin are high enough to elicit biological effects on melanocytes. Our plan is to conduct preclinical studies on mouse models for melanoma to show the efficacy of these analogs in preventing UV-induced melanoma formation, and subsequently use the most promising analogs in a Phase I clinical trial.

Contact Information
  • Medical Sciences Building
  • Room 7165
  • 231 Albert Sabin Way
  • Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0592
  • Office 513-558-6246
  • Fax 513-558-0198
  • Email zalfa.abdel-malek@uc.edu

Peer Reviewed Publications

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Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Cassidy, Pamela 2015. Dark CPDs and photocarcinogenesis: the party continues after the lights go out. Pigment cell & melanoma research, 28 4, 373-4

Cassidy, Pamela B; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Leachman, Sancy A 2015. Beyond Red Hair and Sunburns: Uncovering the Molecular Mechanisms of MC1R Signaling and Repair of UV-Induced DNA Damage. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 135 12, 2918-21

von Koschembahr, Anne M; Swope, Viki B; Starner, Renny J; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2015. Endothelin-1 Protects Human Melanocytes from UV-Induced DNA Damage by Activating JNK and p38 Signaling Pathways. Experimental dermatology, ,

Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Swope, Viki B; Starner, Renny J; Koikov, Leonid; Cassidy, Pamela; Leachman, Sancy 2014. Melanocortins and the melanocortin 1 receptor, moving translationally towards melanoma prevention. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, ,

Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Swope, Viki B; Starner, Renny J; Koikov, Leonid; Cassidy, Pamela; Leachman, Sancy 2014. Melanocortins and the melanocortin 1 receptor, moving translationally towards melanoma prevention. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, ,

Denat, Laurence; Kadekaro, Ana L; Marrot, Laurent; Leachman, Sancy A; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2014. Melanocytes as instigators and victims of oxidative stress. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 134 6, 1512-8

Denat, Laurence; Kadekaro, Ana L; Marrot, Laurent; Leachman, Sancy A; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2014. Melanocytes as instigators and victims of oxidative stress. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 134 6, 1512-8

García-Borrón, Jose C; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa; Jiménez-Cervantes, Celia 2014. MC1R, the cAMP pathway, and the response to solar UV: extending the horizon beyond pigmentation. Pigment cell & melanoma research, ,

García-Borrón, Jose C; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa; Jiménez-Cervantes, Celia 2014. MC1R, the cAMP pathway, and the response to solar UV: extending the horizon beyond pigmentation. Pigment cell & melanoma research, ,

Swope, Viki; Alexander, Christina; Starner, Renny; Schwemberger, Sandy; Babcock, George; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2014. Significance of the melanocortin 1 receptor in the DNA damage response of human melanocytes to ultraviolet radiation. Pigment cell & melanoma research, 27 4, 601-10

Swope, Viki; Alexander, Christina; Starner, Renny; Schwemberger, Sandy; Babcock, George; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2014. Significance of the melanocortin 1 receptor in the DNA damage response of human melanocytes to ultraviolet radiation. Pigment cell & melanoma research, 27 4, 601-10

Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Chen, Juping; Yang, Jennifer; Chen, Shuna; Jameson, Joshua; Swope, Viki B; Cheng, Tan; Kadakia, Madhavi; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa 2012. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone suppresses oxidative stress through a p53-mediated signaling pathway in human melanocytes. Molecular cancer research : MCR, 10 6, 778-86

Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Chen, Juping; Yang, Jennifer; Chen, Shuna; Jameson, Joshua; Swope, Viki B; Cheng, Tan; Kadakia, Madhavi; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa 2012. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone suppresses oxidative stress through a p53-mediated signaling pathway in human melanocytes. Molecular cancer research : MCR, 10 6, 778-86

Swope, Viki B; Jameson, Joshua A; McFarland, Kevin L; Supp, Dorothy M; Miller, William E; McGraw, Dennis W; Patel, Mira A; Nix, Matthew A; Millhauser, Glenn L; Babcock, George F; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2012. Defining MC1R regulation in human melanocytes by its agonist ?-melanocortin and antagonists agouti signaling protein and ?-defensin 3. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 132 9, 2255-62

Swope, Viki B; Jameson, Joshua A; McFarland, Kevin L; Supp, Dorothy M; Miller, William E; McGraw, Dennis W; Patel, Mira A; Nix, Matthew A; Millhauser, Glenn L; Babcock, George F; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2012. Defining MC1R regulation in human melanocytes by its agonist ?-melanocortin and antagonists agouti signaling protein and ?-defensin 3. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 132 9, 2255-62

Herraiz, Cecilia; Journé, Fabrice; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa; Ghanem, Ghanem; Jiménez-Cervantes, Celia; García-Borrón, José C 2011. Signaling from the human melanocortin 1 receptor to ERK1 and ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinases involves transactivation of cKIT. Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.), 25 1, 138-56

Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2010. Development of ?-Melanocortin Analogs for Melanoma Prevention and Targeting. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 681 , 126-32

Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Swope, Viki B 2010. Stepping up melanocytes to the challenge of UV exposure. Pigment cell & melanoma research, 23 2, 171-86

Abdel-Malek, Zalfa; Bar-Eli, Menashe 2010. Estela Medrano, 1943-2010. Pigment cell & melanoma research, 23 6, 724

Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Leachman, Sancy; Kavanagh, Renny J; Swope, Viki; Cassidy, Pamela; Supp, Dorothy; Sartor, Maureen; Schwemberger, Sandy; Babcock, George; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Koshoffer, Amy; Boissy, Raymond E; Manga, Prashiela; Sturm, Richard A; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2010. Melanocortin 1 receptor genotype: an important determinant of the damage response of melanocytes to ultraviolet radiation. The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 24 10, 3850-60

Starner, Renny J; McClelland, Lindy; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa; Fricke, Alex; Scott, Glynis 2010. PGE(2) is a UVR-inducible autocrine factor for human melanocytes that stimulates tyrosinase activation. Experimental dermatology, 19 7, 682-4

Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2009. Agouti signal protein: crossing the 'yellow' signal and arriving to pathways that affect tumorgenesis. Pigment cell & melanoma research, 22 3, 253-4

Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Ruwe, Andrew; Kavanagh-Starner, Renny; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Swope, Viki; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Koikov, Leonid; Knittel, James J 2009. alpha-MSH tripeptide analogs activate the melanocortin 1 receptor and reduce UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes. Pigment cell & melanoma research, 22 5, 635-44

Plonka, P M; Passeron, T; Brenner, M; Tobin, D J; Shibahara, S; Thomas, A; Slominski, A; Kadekaro, A L; Hershkovitz, D; Peters, E; Nordlund, J J; Abdel-Malek, Z; Takeda, K; Paus, R; Ortonne, J P; Hearing, V J; Schallreuter, K U 2009. What are melanocytes really doing all day long...? Experimental dermatology, 18 9, 799-819

Ruwe, Andrew R; Koikov, Leonid; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Dirain, Marvin L; Portillo, Federico; Xiang, Zhimin; Wortman, Matt; Knittel, James J 2009. Semi-rigid tripeptide agonists of melanocortin receptors. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 19 17, 5176-81

Song, Xiuzu; Mosby, Nicole; Yang, Jennifer; Xu, Aie; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa 2009. alpha-MSH activates immediate defense responses to UV-induced oxidative stress in human melanocytes. Pigment cell & melanoma research, 22 6, 809-18

Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Supp, Dorothy 2008. beta-Defensin 3: a novel and unexpected key that unlocks the melanocortin 1 receptor. Pigment cell & melanoma research, 21 1, 7-8

Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2007. Walking in the footsteps of giants: melanocortins and human pigmentation, a historical perspective. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society, 20 3, 150-2

Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Kavanagh, Renny J; Todorovic, Aleksandar; Koikov, Leonid N; McNulty, Joseph C; Jackson, Pilgrim J; Millhauser, Glenn L; Schwemberger, Sandy; Babcock, George; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Knittel, James J 2006. Melanoma prevention strategy based on using tetrapeptide alpha-MSH analogs that protect human melanocytes from UV-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity. The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 20 9, 1561-3

Gray-Schopfer, V C; Cheong, S C; Chong, H; Chow, J; Moss, T; Abdel-Malek, Z A; Marais, R; Wynford-Thomas, D; Bennett, D C 2006. Cellular senescence in naevi and immortalisation in melanoma: a role for p16? British journal of cancer, 95 4, 496-505

Hauser, Jennifer E; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Kavanagh, Renny J; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Terzieva, Silva; Schwemberger, Sandy; Babcock, George; Rao, M B; Ito, Shosuke; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2006. Melanin content and MC1R function independently affect UVR-induced DNA damage in cultured human melanocytes. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society, 19 4, 303-14

Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2006. Cutaneous photoprotection and melanoma susceptibility: reaching beyond melanin content to the frontiers of DNA repair. Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library, 11 , 2157-73

Rouzaud, Francois; Costin, Gertrude-E; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Valencia, Julio C; Berens, Werner F; Chen, Kevin G; Hoashi, Toshihiko; Böhm, Markus; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Hearing, Vincent J 2006. Regulation of constitutive and UVR-induced skin pigmentation by melanocortin 1 receptor isoforms. The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 20 11, 1927-9

Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Kavanagh, Renny; Kadekaro, Ana L; Terzieva, Silva; Sturm, Richard A; Leachman, Sancy; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa; Ito, Shosuke 2006. Diversity of pigmentation in cultured human melanocytes is due to differences in the type as well as quantity of melanin. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society, 19 2, 154-62

Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Kavanagh, Renny; Kanto, Hiromi; Terzieva, Silva; Hauser, Jennifer; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Schwemberger, Sandy; Cornelius, James; Babcock, George; Shertzer, Howard G; Scott, Glynis; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2005. alpha-Melanocortin and endothelin-1 activate antiapoptotic pathways and reduce DNA damage in human melanocytes. Cancer research, 65 10, 4292-9

Rouzaud, Francois; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Hearing, Vincent J 2005. MC1R and the response of melanocytes to ultraviolet radiation. Mutation research, 571 1-2, 133-52

Todorovic, Aleksandar; Holder, Jerry Ryan; Bauzo, Rayna M; Scott, Joseph Walker; Kavanagh, Renny; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie 2005. N-terminal fatty acylated His-dPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2) tetrapeptides: influence of fatty acid chain length on potency and selectivity at the mouse melanocortin receptors and human melanocytes. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 48 9, 3328-36

Yamaguchi, Yuji; Itami, Satoshi; Watabe, Hidenori; Yasumoto, Ken-Ichi; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Kubo, Tateki; Rouzaud, François; Tanemura, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Kunihiko; Hearing, Vincent J 2004. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in the skin: increased expression of dickkopf1 by palmoplantar fibroblasts inhibits melanocyte growth and differentiation. The Journal of cell biology, 165 2, 275-85

Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Kanto, Hiromi; Kavanagh, Renny; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2003. Significance of the melanocortin 1 receptor in regulating human melanocyte pigmentation, proliferation, and survival. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 994 , 359-65

Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Kavanagh, Renny J; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Pipitone, Michelle A; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2003. Cutaneous photobiology. The melanocyte vs. the sun: who will win the final round? Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society, 16 5, 434-47

Scott, M Cathy; Suzuki, Itaru; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2002. Regulation of the human melanocortin 1 receptor expression in epidermal melanocytes by paracrine and endocrine factors and by ultraviolet radiation. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society, 15 6, 433-9

Scott, M Cathy; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Groden, Joanna; Kavanagh, Renny; Takakuwa, Takako; Virador, Victoria; Hearing, Vincent J; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2002. Human melanocortin 1 receptor variants, receptor function and melanocyte response to UV radiation. Journal of cell science, 115 Pt 11, 2349-55

Tada, Akihiro; Pereira, Elizabeth; Beitner-Johnson, Dana; Kavanagh, Renny; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A 2002. Mitogen- and ultraviolet-B-induced signaling pathways in normal human melanocytes. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 118 2, 316-22

Virador, Victoria M; Muller, Jacqueline; Wu, Xufneg; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Yu, Zu-Xi; Ferrans, Victor J; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Hammer, John A; Hearing, Vincent J 2002. Influence of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and ultraviolet radiation on the transfer of melanosomes to keratinocytes. The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 16 1, 105-7

Abdel-Malek, Z 2001. Neuromediators and pigmentation. Experimental dermatology, 10 5, 350-1

Abdel-Malek, Z A 2001. Melanocortin receptors: their functions and regulation by physiological agonists and antagonists. Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS, 58 3, 434-41

Abdel-Malek, Z A; Scott, M C; Furumura, M; Lamoreux, M L; Ollmann, M; Barsh, G S; Hearing, V J 2001. The melanocortin 1 receptor is the principal mediator of the effects of agouti signaling protein on mammalian melanocytes. Journal of cell science, 114 Pt 5, 1019-24

Virador, V; Matsunaga, N; Matsunaga, J; Valencia, J; Oldham, R J; Kameyama, K; Peck, G L; Ferrans, V J; Vieira, W D; Abdel-Malek, Z A; Hearing, V J 2001. Production of melanocyte-specific antibodies to human melanosomal proteins: expression patterns in normal human skin and in cutaneous pigmented lesions. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society, 14 4, 289-97

Abdel-Malek, Z; Scott, M C; Suzuki, I; Tada, A; Im, S; Lamoreux, L; Ito, S; Barsh, G; Hearing, V J 2000. The melanocortin-1 receptor is a key regulator of human cutaneous pigmentation. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society, 13 Suppl 8 , 156-62

Abdel-Malek, Z; Suzuki, I; Tada, A; Im, S; Akcali, C 1999. The melanocortin-1 receptor and human pigmentation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 885 , 117-33

Suzuki, I; Im, S; Tada, A; Scott, C; Akcali, C; Davis, M B; Barsh, G; Hearing, V; Abdel-Malek, Z 1999. Participation of the melanocortin-1 receptor in the UV control of pigmentation. The journal of investigative dermatology. Symposium proceedings / the Society for Investigative Dermatology, Inc. [and] European Society for Dermatological Research, 4 1, 29-34

Can, G; Abdel-Malek, Z; Porter-Gill, P A; Gill, P; Boyce, S; Grabowski, G A; Nordlund, J; Farooqui, J 1998. Identification and sequencing of a putative variant of proopiomelanocortin in human epidermis and epidermal cells in culture. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 111 3, 485-91

Im, S; Moro, O; Peng, F; Medrano, E E; Cornelius, J; Babcock, G; Nordlund, J J; Abdel-Malek, Z A 1998. Activation of the cyclic AMP pathway by alpha-melanotropin mediates the response of human melanocytes to ultraviolet B radiation. Cancer research, 58 1, 47-54

Tada, A; Suzuki, I; Im, S; Davis, M B; Cornelius, J; Babcock, G; Nordlund, J J; Abdel-Malek, Z A 1998. Endothelin-1 is a paracrine growth factor that modulates melanogenesis of human melanocytes and participates in their responses to ultraviolet radiation. Cell growth & differentiation : the molecular biology journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 9 7, 575-84

Sakai, C; Ollmann, M; Kobayashi, T; Abdel-Malek, Z; Muller, J; Vieira, W D; Imokawa, G; Barsh, G S; Hearing, V J 1997. Modulation of murine melanocyte function in vitro by agouti signal protein. The EMBO journal, 16 12, 3544-52

Scott, G; Cassidy, L; Abdel-Malek, Z 1997. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and endothelin-1 have opposing effects on melanocyte adhesion, migration, and pp125FAK phosphorylation. Experimental cell research, 237 1, 19-28

Suzuki, I; Tada, A; Ollmann, M M; Barsh, G S; Im, S; Lamoreux, M L; Hearing, V J; Nordlund, J J; Abdel-Malek, Z A 1997. Agouti signaling protein inhibits melanogenesis and the response of human melanocytes to alpha-melanotropin. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 108 6, 838-42

Furumura, M; Sakai, C; Abdel-Malek, Z; Barsh, G S; Hearing, V J 1996. The interaction of agouti signal protein and melanocyte stimulating hormone to regulate melanin formation in mammals. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society, 9 4, 191-203

Suzuki, I; Cone, R D; Im, S; Nordlund, J; Abdel-Malek, Z A 1996. Binding of melanotropic hormones to the melanocortin receptor MC1R on human melanocytes stimulates proliferation and melanogenesis. Endocrinology, 137 5, 1627-33

Abdel-Malek, Z; Swope, V B; Suzuki, I; Akcali, C; Harriger, M D; Boyce, S T; Urabe, K; Hearing, V J 1995. Mitogenic and melanogenic stimulation of normal human melanocytes by melanotropic peptides. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92 5, 1789-93

Barker, D; Dixon, K; Medrano, E E; Smalara, D; Im, S; Mitchell, D; Babcock, G; Abdel-Malek, Z A 1995. Comparison of the responses of human melanocytes with different melanin contents to ultraviolet B irradiation. Cancer research, 55 18, 4041-6

Medrano, E E; Im, S; Yang, F; Abdel-Malek, Z A 1995. Ultraviolet B light induces G1 arrest in human melanocytes by prolonged inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation associated with long-term expression of the p21Waf-1/SDI-1/Cip-1 protein. Cancer research, 55 18, 4047-52

Swope, V B; Medrano, E E; Smalara, D; Abdel-Malek, Z A 1995. Long-term proliferation of human melanocytes is supported by the physiologic mitogens alpha-melanotropin, endothelin-1, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Experimental cell research, 217 2, 453-9

Abdel-Malek, Z A; Swope, V B; Nordlund, J J; Medrano, E E 1994. Proliferation and propagation of human melanocytes in vitro are affected by donor age and anatomical site. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society, 7 2, 116-22

Abdel-Malek, Z; Swope, V; Smalara, D; Babcock, G; Dawes, S; Nordlund, J 1994. Analysis of the UV-induced melanogenesis and growth arrest of human melanocytes. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society, 7 5, 326-32

Swope, V B; Sauder, D N; McKenzie, R C; Sramkoski, R M; Krug, K A; Babcock, G F; Nordlund, J J; Abdel-Malek, Z A 1994. Synthesis of interleukin-1 alpha and beta by normal human melanocytes. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 102 5, 749-53

Zhao, H; Boissy, Y L; Abdel-Malek, Z; King, R A; Nordlund, J J; Boissy, R E 1994. On the analysis of the pathophysiology of Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Defects expressed by cultured melanocytes. Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology, 71 1, 25-34

Abdel-Malek, Z; Swope, V; Collins, C; Boissy, R; Zhao, H; Nordlund, J 1993. Contribution of melanogenic proteins to the heterogeneous pigmentation of human melanocytes. Journal of cell science, 106 ( Pt 4) , 1323-31

Boyce, S T; Medrano, E E; Abdel-Malek, Z; Supp, A P; Dodick, J M; Nordlund, J J; Warden, G D 1993. Pigmentation and inhibition of wound contraction by cultured skin substitutes with adult melanocytes after transplantation to athymic mice. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 100 4, 360-5

Farooqui, J Z; Medrano, E E; Abdel-Malek, Z; Nordlund, J 1993. The expression of proopiomelanocortin and various POMC-derived peptides in mouse and human skin. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 680 , 508-10

Abdel-Malek, Z A; Swope, V B; Nordlund, J J 1992. The nature and biological effects of factors responsible for proliferation and differentiation of melanocytes. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society, Suppl 2 , 43-7

Abdel-Malek, Z; Swope, V B; Pallas, J; Krug, K; Nordlund, J J 1992. Mitogenic, melanogenic, and cAMP responses of cultured neonatal human melanocytes to commonly used mitogens. Journal of cellular physiology, 150 2, 416-25

Plews, P I; Abdel-Malek, Z A; Doupnik, C A; Leikauf, G D 1991. Endothelin stimulates chloride secretion across canine tracheal epithelium. The American journal of physiology, 261 2 Pt 1, L188-94

Swope, V B; Abdel-Malek, Z; Kassem, L M; Nordlund, J J 1991. Interleukins 1 alpha and 6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are paracrine inhibitors of human melanocyte proliferation and melanogenesis. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 96 2, 180-5

Abdel-Malek, Z A; Swope, V B; Trinkle, L S; Nordlund, J J 1989. Stimulation of Cloudman melanoma tyrosinase activity occurs predominantly in G2 phase of the cell cycle. Experimental cell research, 180 1, 198-208

Nordlund, J J; Abdel-Malek, Z A; Boissy, R E; Rheins, L A 1989. Pigment cell biology: an historical review. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 92 4 Suppl, 53S-60S

Swope, V B; Abdel-Malek, Z A; Sauder, D N; Nordlund, J J 1989. A new role for epidermal cell-derived thymocyte activating factor/IL-1 as an antagonist for distinct epidermal cell function. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 142 6, 1943-9

Abdel-Malek, Z A 1988. Endocrine factors as effectors of integumental pigmentation. Dermatologic clinics, 6 2, 175-83

Abdel-Malek, Z A; Ross, R; Trinkle, L; Swope, V; Pike, J W; Nordlund, J J 1988. Hormonal effects of vitamin D3 on epidermal melanocytes. Journal of cellular physiology, 136 2, 273-80

Abdel-Malek, Z A; Swope, V B; Trinkle, L S; Ferroni, E N; Boissy, R E; Nordlund, J J 1988. Alteration of the Cloudman melanoma cell cycle by prostaglandins E1 and E2 determined by using a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine method of DNA analysis. Journal of cellular physiology, 136 2, 247-56

Nordlund, J J; Abdel-Malek, Z A 1988. Mechanisms for post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation. Progress in clinical and biological research, 256 , 219-36

Trinkle, L S; Swope, V B; Abdel-Malek, Z A; Nordlund, J J 1988. Differentiation of mitotic melanoma cells from G2 cells and their isolation by use of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and propidium iodide. Cytometry, 9 5, 432-5

Abdel-Malek, Z A; Swope, V B; Amornsiripanitch, N; Nordlund, J J 1987. In vitro modulation of proliferation and melanization of S91 melanoma cells by prostaglandins. Cancer research, 47 12, 3141-6

Levine, N; Lemus-Wilson, A; Wood, S H; Abdel Malek, Z A; Al-Obeidi, F; Hruby, V J; Hadley, M E 1987. Stimulation of follicular melanogenesis in the mouse by topical and injected melanotropins. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 89 3, 269-73

Abdel Malek, Z A; Hadley, M E; Bregman, M D; Meyskens, F L; Hruby, V J 1986. Actions of melanotropins on mouse melanoma cell growth in vitro. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 76 5, 857-63

Abdel Malek, Z A; Kreutzfeld, K L; Hadley, M E; Bregman, M D; Hruby, V J; Meyskens, F L 1986. Long-term and residual melanotropin-stimulated tyrosinase activity in S91 melanoma cells is density dependent. In vitro cellular & developmental biology : journal of the Tissue Culture Association, 22 2, 75-81

Sugg, E E; Cody, W L; Abdel-Malek, Z; Hadley, M E; Hruby, V J 1986. D-isomeric replacements within the 6-9 core sequence of Ac-[Nle4]-alpha-MSH4-11-NH2: a topological model for the solution conformation of alpha-melanotropin. Biopolymers, 25 11, 2029-42

Abdel Malek, Z A; Kreutzfeld, K L; Marwan, M M; Hadley, M E; Hruby, V J; Wilkes, B C 1985. Prolonged stimulation of S91 melanoma tyrosinase by [Nle4, D-Phe7]-substituted alpha-melanotropins. Cancer research, 45 10, 4735-40

Bregman, M D; Abdel Malek, Z A; Meyskens, F L 1985. Anchorage-independent growth of murine melanoma in serum-less media is dependent on insulin or melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Experimental cell research, 157 2, 419-28

Hadley, M E; Abdel Malek, Z A; Marwan, M M; Kreutzfeld, K L; Hruby, V J 1985. [Nle4, D-Phe7]-alpha-MSH: a superpotent melanotropin that "irreversibly" activates melanoma tyrosinase. Endocrine research, 11 3-4, 157-70

Marwan, M M; Abdel Malek, Z A; Kreutzfeld, K L; Hadley, M E; Wilkes, B C; Hruby, V J; Castrucci, A M 1985. Stimulation of S91 melanoma tyrosinase activity by superpotent alpha-melanotropins. Molecular and cellular endocrinology, 41 2-3, 171-7

Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Knittel, James; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Swope, Viki B; Starner, Renny . The melanocortin 1 receptor and the UV response of human melanocytes--a shift in paradigm. Photochemistry and photobiology, 84 2, 501-8

Ghanem, G; Loir, B; Hadley, M; Abdel Malek, Z; Libert, A; Del Marmol, V; Lejeune, F; Lozano, J; García-Borron, J C . Partial characterization of IR-alpha-MSH peptides found in melanoma tumors. Peptides, 13 5, 989-94

Yang, F; Abdel-Malek, Z; Boissy, R E . Effects of commonly used mitogens on the cytotoxicity of 4-tertiary butylphenol to human melanocytes. In vitro cellular & developmental biology. Animal, 35 10, 566-70