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Department of


Photo of  William Hurford, MD

William Hurford, MD

Professor of Anesthesiology

  • Bachelor's Degree: Dartmouth College
  • Medical Degree: University of Pennsylvania
  • Residency: Massachusetts General Hospital
  • Fellowship: Massachusetts General Hospital

Research/Clinical Interests


Board Certifications & Licenses
  • Medical License Massachusetts Board of Registration in Medicine, 1982
  • Medical License State Medical Board of Ohio, 2003
  • Anesthesiology American Board of Anesthesiology, 1986
  • Critical Care Medicine American Board of Anesthesiology, 1987
Contact Information
  • Medical Sciences Building
  • Room 3209
  • 231 Albert Sabin Way
  • Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0531
  • Office 513-558-2402
  • Fax 513-558-0995
  • Email

Peer Reviewed Publications

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Dodge, Heather S; Ekhator, Nosakhare N; Jefferson-Wilson, Lena; Fischer, Mark; Jansen, Ian; Horn, Paul S; Hurford, William E; Geracioti, Thomas D 2013. Cigarette smokers have reduced risk for post-dural puncture headache. Pain physician, 16 1, E25-30

Hurford, William E 2013. Controversies and considerations in formulating a hospital policy for procedural sedation. International anesthesiology clinics, 51 2, 23-32

Hurford, William E; Staubach, Katherine C 2013. Preface: procedural sedation. International anesthesiology clinics, 51 2, xi-xii

Hurford, William E; Staubach, Katherine C 2013. A hospital policy for procedural sedation in the nonintubated patient. International anesthesiology clinics, 51 2, 1-22

Hurford, William E 2012. Preface--Updates in head-to-toe applications of regional anesthesia for ambulatory surgery. International anesthesiology clinics, 50 1, x-xi

Bennett, Suzanne; Hurford, William E 2011. When should sedation or neuromuscular blockade be used during mechanical ventilation? Respiratory care, 56 2, 168-76; discussion 1

Hurford, William E 2011. Some comments on the cuff. Respiratory care, 56 10, 1625-6

Hurford, William E 2010. The video revolution: a new view of laryngoscopy. Respiratory care, 55 8, 1036-45

Utrup, Theresa R; Mueller, Eric W; Healy, Daniel P; Callcut, Rachael A; Peterson, John D; Hurford, William E 2010. High-dose ciprofloxacin for serious gram-negative infection in an obese, critically ill patient receiving continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. The Annals of pharmacotherapy, 44 10, 1660-4

Benedetto, William J; Hess, Dean R; Gettings, Elise; Bigatello, Luca M; Toon, Hannah; Hurford, William E; Schmidt, Ulrich 2007. Urgent tracheal intubation in general hospital units: an observational study. Journal of clinical anesthesia, 19 1, 20-4

Deem, Steven; Hurford, William E 2007. Respiratory controversies in the critical care setting. Should all patients be treated with hypothermia following cardiac arrest? Respiratory care, 52 4, 443-50; discussion 4

Hurford, William E; Cheifetz, Ira M 2007. Respiratory controversies in the critical care setting. Should heliox be used for mechanically ventilated patients? Respiratory care, 52 5, 582-91; discussion 5

Gettings, Elise M; Brush, Kathryn A; Van Cott, Elizabeth M; Hurford, William E 2006. Outcome of postoperative critically ill patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: an observational retrospective case-control study. Critical care (London, England), 10 6, R161

Gordon, James A; Shaffer, David W; Raemer, Daniel B; Pawlowski, John; Hurford, William E; Cooper, Jeffrey B 2006. A randomized controlled trial of simulation-based teaching versus traditional instruction in medicine: a pilot study among clinical medical students. Advances in health sciences education : theory and practice, 11 1, 33-9

Fitzsimons, Michael G; Peralta, Ruben; Hurford, William 2005. Cricoid fracture after physical assault. The Journal of trauma, 59 5, 1237-8

Hurford, William E 2005. Nitric oxide as a bactericidal agent: is the cure worse than the disease? Respiratory care, 50 11, 1428-9

Fitzsimons, Michael G; Gaudette, Ronald R; Hurford, William E 2004. Critical rebound methemoglobinemia after methylene blue treatment: case report. Pharmacotherapy, 24 4, 538-40

Hurford, William E; Kratz, Alexander 2004. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 23-2004. A 50-year-old woman with low oxygen saturation. The New England journal of medicine, 351 4, 380-7

Shaw, Cheryl I; Kacmarek, Robert M; Hampton, Rickey L; Riggi, Vincent; El Masry, Ashraf; Cooper, Jeffrey B; Hurford, William E 2004. Cellular phone interference with the operation of mechanical ventilators. Critical care medicine, 32 4, 928-31

Bigatello, Luca M; George, Edward; Hurford, William E 2003. Ethical considerations for research in critically ill patients. Critical care medicine, 31 3 Suppl, S178-81

Koh, Younsuck; Hurford, William E 2003. Inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome: from bench to bedside. International anesthesiology clinics, 41 1, 91-102

Bigatello, Luca M; George, Ed; Hurford, William E 2002. The alveolus and the capillary. Critical care medicine, 30 6, 1394-5

Hurford, William E 2002. Inhaled nitric oxide. Respiratory care clinics of North America, 8 2, 261-79

Hurford, William E 2002. Sedation and paralysis during mechanical ventilation. Respiratory care, 47 3, 334-46; discussion 3

Hurford, William E; Bigatello, Luca M 2002. NO-body's perfect. Anesthesiology, 96 6, 1285-7

Cist, A F; Truog, R D; Brackett, S E; Hurford, W E 2001. Practical guidelines on the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies. International anesthesiology clinics, 39 3, 87-102

Truog, R D; Cist, A F; Brackett, S E; Burns, J P; Curley, M A; Danis, M; DeVita, M A; Rosenbaum, S H; Rothenberg, D M; Sprung, C L; Webb, S A; Wlody, G S; Hurford, W E 2001. Recommendations for end-of-life care in the intensive care unit: The Ethics Committee of the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Critical care medicine, 29 12, 2332-48

Adrie, C; Holzmann, A; Hirani, W M; Zapol, W M; Hurford, W E 2000. Effects of intravenous Zaprinast and inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary hemodynamics and gas exchange in an ovine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthesiology, 93 2, 422-30

Bigatello, L M; Hess, D; Dennehy, K C; Medoff, B D; Hurford, W E 2000. Sildenafil can increase the response to inhaled nitric oxide. Anesthesiology, 92 6, 1827-9

Ceccarelli, P; Bigatello, L M; Hess, D; Kwo, J; Melendez, L; Hurford, W E 2000. Inhaled nitric oxide delivery by anesthesia machines. Anesthesia and analgesia, 90 2, 482-8

Hurford, W E 2000. Techniques for endotracheal intubation. International anesthesiology clinics, 38 3, 1-28

Hurford, W E 2000. The bronchospastic patient. International anesthesiology clinics, 38 1, 77-90

Peralta, R; Hurford, W E 2000. Airway trauma. International anesthesiology clinics, 38 3, 111-27

Bigatello, L M; Hurford, W E 1999. Inhaled nitric oxide and pulmonary vascular resistance. Critical care medicine, 27 9, 2060-1

Bigatello, L M; Hurford, W E; Pesenti, A 1999. Ventilatory management of severe acute respiratory failure for Y2K. Anesthesiology, 91 6, 1567-70

Hurford, W E 1999. Sedation in the intensive care unit. International anesthesiology clinics, 37 4, 113-22

Hurford, W E 1999. Cardiopulmonary interactions during mechanical ventilation. International anesthesiology clinics, 37 3, 35-46

Steudel, W; Hurford, W E; Zapol, W M 1999. Inhaled nitric oxide: basic biology and clinical applications. Anesthesiology, 91 4, 1090-121

Adrie, C; Hirani, W M; Holzmann, A; Keefer, L; Zapol, W M; Hurford, W E 1998. Selective pulmonary vasodilation by intravenous infusion of an ultrashort half-life nucleophile/nitric oxide adduct. Anesthesiology, 88 1, 190-5

Adrie, C; Ichinose, F; Holzmann, A; Keefer, L; Hurford, W E; Zapol, W M 1998. Pulmonary vasodilation by nitric oxide gas and prodrug aerosols in acute pulmonary hypertension. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 84 2, 435-41

Ichinose, F; Adrie, C; Hurford, W E; Bloch, K D; Zapol, W M 1998. Selective pulmonary vasodilation induced by aerosolized zaprinast. Anesthesiology, 88 2, 410-6

Kirmse, M; Hess, D; Fujino, Y; Kacmarek, R M; Hurford, W E 1998. Delivery of inhaled nitric oxide using the Ohmeda INOvent Delivery System. Chest, 113 6, 1650-7

Mathisen, D J; Kuo, E Y; Hahn, C; Moncure, A C; Wain, J C; Grillo, H C; Hurford, W E; Wright, C D 1998. Inhaled nitric oxide for adult respiratory distress syndrome after pulmonary resection. The Annals of thoracic surgery, 66 6, 1894-902

Bigatello, L M; Hurford, W E; Hess, D 1997. Use of inhaled nitric oxide for ARDS. Respiratory care clinics of North America, 3 3, 437-58

Hess, D; Bigatello, L; Hurford, W E 1997. Toxicity and complications of inhaled nitric oxide. Respiratory care clinics of North America, 3 4, 487-503

Hurford, W E 1997. The biologic basis for inhaled nitric oxide. Respiratory care clinics of North America, 3 3, 357-69

Imanaka, H; Hess, D; al-Himyary, A; Bigatello, L M; Ritz, R; Kacmarek, R M; Hurford, W E 1997. Assessment of errors when expiratory condensate PCO2 is used as a proxy for mixed expired PCO2 during mechanical ventilation. Journal of clinical monitoring, 13 4, 215-22

Imanaka, H; Hess, D; Kirmse, M; Bigatello, L M; Kacmarek, R M; Steudel, W; Hurford, W E 1997. Inaccuracies of nitric oxide delivery systems during adult mechanical ventilation. Anesthesiology, 86 3, 676-88

Manktelow, C; Bigatello, L M; Hess, D; Hurford, W E 1997. Physiologic determinants of the response to inhaled nitric oxide in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthesiology, 87 2, 297-307

Sheridan, R L; Hurford, W E; Kacmarek, R M; Ritz, R H; Yin, L M; Ryan, C M; Tompkins, R G 1997. Inhaled nitric oxide in burn patients with respiratory failure. The Journal of trauma, 42 4, 629-34

Steudel, W; Ichinose, F; Huang, P L; Hurford, W E; Jones, R C; Bevan, J A; Fishman, M C; Zapol, W M 1997. Pulmonary vasoconstriction and hypertension in mice with targeted disruption of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS 3) gene. Circulation research, 81 1, 34-41

Adrie, C; Bloch, K D; Moreno, P R; Hurford, W E; Guerrero, J L; Holt, R; Zapol, W M; Gold, H K; Semigran, M J 1996. Inhaled nitric oxide increases coronary artery patency after thrombolysis. Circulation, 94 8, 1919-26

Hurford, W E; Hochachka, P W; Schneider, R C; Guyton, G P; Stanek, K S; Zapol, D G; Liggins, G C; Zapol, W M 1996. Splenic contraction, catecholamine release, and blood volume redistribution during diving in the Weddell seal. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 80 1, 298-306

Saavedra, J E; Southan, G J; Davies, K M; Lundell, A; Markou, C; Hanson, S R; Adrie, C; Hurford, W E; Zapol, W M; Keefer, L K 1996. Localizing antithrombotic and vasodilatory activity with a novel, ultrafast nitric oxide donor. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 39 22, 4361-5

Body, S C; Hartigan, P M; Shernan, S K; Formanek, V; Hurford, W E 1995. Nitric oxide: delivery, measurement, and clinical application. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, 9 6, 748-63

Guyton, G P; Stanek, K S; Schneider, R C; Hochachka, P W; Hurford, W E; Zapol, D G; Liggins, G C; Zapol, W M 1995. Myoglobin saturation in free-diving Weddell seals. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 79 4, 1148-55

Hochachka, P W; Liggins, G C; Guyton, G P; Schneider, R C; Stanek, K S; Hurford, W E; Creasy, R K; Zapol, D G; Zapol, W M 1995. Hormonal regulatory adjustments during voluntary diving in Weddell seals. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology, 112 2, 361-75

Hurford, W E 1995. Current status of nitric oxide inhalation. Nihon Ky?bu Shikkan Gakkai zasshi, 33 Suppl , 199-204

Hurford, W E; Favorito, F 1995. Association of myocardial ischemia with failure to wean from mechanical ventilation. Critical care medicine, 23 9, 1475-80

Ichinose, F; Adrie, C; Hurford, W E; Zapol, W M 1995. Prolonged pulmonary vasodilator action of inhaled nitric oxide by Zaprinast in awake lambs. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 78 4, 1288-95

Nishimura, M; Hess, D; Kacmarek, R M; Ritz, R; Hurford, W E 1995. Nitrogen dioxide production during mechanical ventilation with nitric oxide in adults. Effects of ventilator internal volume, air versus nitrogen dilution, minute ventilation, and inspired oxygen fraction. Anesthesiology, 82 5, 1246-54

Bigatello, L M; Hurford, W E; Kacmarek, R M; Roberts, J D; Zapol, W M 1994. Prolonged inhalation of low concentrations of nitric oxide in patients with severe adult respiratory distress syndrome. Effects on pulmonary hemodynamics and oxygenation. Anesthesiology, 80 4, 761-70

Sapirstein, A; Hurford, W E 1994. Neuromuscular blocking agents in the management of respiratory failure. Indications and treatment guidelines. Critical care clinics, 10 4, 831-43

Zapol, W M; Falke, K J; Hurford, W E; Roberts, J D 1994. Inhaling nitric oxide: a selective pulmonary vasodilator and bronchodilator. Chest, 105 3 Suppl, 87S-91S

Zapol, W M; Hurford, W E 1994. Inhaled nitric oxide in adult respiratory distress syndrome and other lung diseases. Advances in pharmacology (San Diego, Calif.), 31 , 513-30

Hurford, W E; Alfille, P H 1993. A quality improvement study of the placement and complications of double-lumen endobronchial tubes. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, 7 5, 517-20

Hurford, W E; Dutton, R P; Alfille, P H; Clement, D; Wilson, R S 1993. Comparison of thoracic and lumbar epidural infusions of bupivacaine and fentanyl for post-thoracotomy analgesia. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, 7 5, 521-5

Qvist, J; Hurford, W E; Park, Y S; Radermacher, P; Falke, K J; Ahn, D W; Guyton, G P; Stanek, K S; Hong, S K; Weber, R E 1993. Arterial blood gas tensions during breath-hold diving in the Korean ama. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 75 1, 285-93

Stanek, K S; Guyton, G P; Hurford, W E; Park, Y S; Ahn, D W; Qvist, J; Falke, K J; Hong, S K; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, H 1993. Continuous pulse oximetry in the breath-hold diving women of Korea and Japan. Undersea & hyperbaric medicine : journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc, 20 4, 297-307

Szabo, M D; Crosby, G; Hurford, W E; Strauss, H W 1993. Myocardial perfusion following acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal electrocardiogram. Anesthesia and analgesia, 76 2, 253-8

Zapol, W M; Hurford, W E 1993. Inhaled nitric oxide in the adult respiratory distress syndrome and other lung diseases. New horizons (Baltimore, Md.), 1 4, 638-50

Simon, B A; Hurford, W E; Alfille, P H; Haspel, K; Behringer, E C 1992. An aid in the diagnosis of malpositioned double-lumen tubes. Anesthesiology, 76 5, 862-3

Hurford, W E; Lynch, K E; Strauss, H W; Lowenstein, E; Zapol, W M 1991. Myocardial perfusion as assessed by thallium-201 scintigraphy during the discontinuation of mechanical ventilation in ventilator-dependent patients. Anesthesiology, 74 6, 1007-16

Hurford, W E 1990. Thermodilution right ventricular ejection fraction. Remaining questions. Chest, 98 5, 1054-5

Hurford, W E; Crosby, G; Strauss, H W; Jones, R; Lowenstein, E 1990. Ventricular performance and glucose uptake in rats during chronic hypobaric hypoxia. Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine, 31 8, 1344-51

Hurford, W E; Hong, S K; Park, Y S; Ahn, D W; Shiraki, K; Mohri, M; Zapol, W M 1990. Splenic contraction during breath-hold diving in the Korean ama. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 69 3, 932-6

Hurford, W E; Crosby, G 1989. Regional brain glucose utilization in the conscious rat exposed to prolonged hypobaric hypoxia. Journal of neurosurgical anesthesiology, 1 3, 249-55

Hurford, W E; Lowenstein, E; Strauss, W 1989. Are all myocardial infarctions alike? Anesthesiology, 71 6, 815-7

Hurford, W E; Zapol, W M 1988. The right ventricle and critical illness: a review of anatomy, physiology, and clinical evaluation of its function. Intensive care medicine, 14 Suppl 2 , 448-57

Hurford, W E; Kolker, A C; Strauss, H W 1987. The use of ventilation/perfusion lung scans to predict oxygenation during one-lung anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 67 5, 841-4

Stoller, J K; Herbst, T J; Hurford, W; Rie, M A 1986. Spuriously high cardiac output from injecting thermal indicator through an ensheathed port. Critical care medicine, 14 12, 1064-5

Silverman, D G; Hurford, W E; Cooper, H S; Robinson, M; Brousseau, D A 1983. Quantification of fluorescein distribution to strangulated rat ileum. The Journal of surgical research, 34 2, 179-86

Weisman, R A; Blumberg, A L; Brousseau, D A; Hurford, W E; Silverman, D G 1983. Fluorometric assessment of skin flap viability in the rat: effect of radiation therapy. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 91 2, 151-5

Silverman, D G; Cedrone, F A; Hurford, W E; Bering, T G; LaRossa, D D 1981. Monitoring tissue elimination of fluorescein with the perfusion fluorometer: a new method to assess capillary blood flow. Surgery, 90 2, 409-17

Alfille, P H; Hurford, W E . Upper airway injuries. Journal of clinical anesthesia, 3 2, 88-90

Cohen, L G; DiBiasio, A; Lisco, S J; Hurford, W E . Fluconazole serum concentrations and pharmacokinetics in an obese patient. Pharmacotherapy, 17 5, 1023-6

Datta, Sukdeb; Hurford, William . Transverse myelitis associated with Acinetobacter baumanii intrathecal pump catheter-related infection. Where was the source of the infection? Regional anesthesia and pain medicine, 29 5, 503-4; author reply

Goto, T; Hurford, W E . Postoperative acute respiratory failure following thoracotomy in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Journal of clinical anesthesia, 6 5, 434-6

Hong, S K; Henderson, J; Olszowka, A; Hurford, W E; Falke, K J; Qvist, J; Radermacher, P; Shiraki, K; Mohri, M; Takeuchi, H . Daily diving pattern of Korean and Japanese breath-hold divers (ama). Undersea biomedical research, 18 5-6, 433-43

Whalen, R L; Hurford, W E; Skoskiewicz, M; Wonders, T R; Zapol, W M . A new right ventricular assist device. The extracorporeal pulsatile assist device (EPAD). ASAIO transactions / American Society for Artificial Internal Organs, 33 3, 222-6